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Chapter 12

Chapter 12.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2740
Professor
Stephen Lewis

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Chapter 12 Cognitive topics in personality Diallo case  police mistakenly shot a man can fired 41 bullets  cognitive approaches to personality  personalizing cognition - the science prompted a recall a similar event from their own life  objectifying cognition - scene prompted her to recall objective facts about the distribution of blood vessels  cognition - general term referring to awareness and thinking, as well as to specific, mental acts such as perceiving, attending tom interpreting remembering, deciding  all of these mental behaviours add up to what is called information processing  three levels of cognition - first level perception - process of imposing order on the information our sense organs take in - perception varies by person  second - interpretation - making sense of or explaining various events in the world - interpretation concerns giving meanings to events  third - conscious goals - the standards that people develop for evaluating themselves and others - people develop different beliefs about what is important in life Personality revealed through perception  Field dependence  field dependence versus field independence - field dependence is not being able to look beyond the details to see the big picture  Watkin - Rod and Frame Test (RFT) - using this apparatus, the participant sits n a darkened room and is instructed to watch a glowing rod surrounded by a turning dial - and the participants chair  the participants task is to adjust the rod by turning the dial - so that the rod is perfectly upright  to do this, the participant must ignore the visual cues  if they do not ignore visual cues - field dependent - if they are successful, they are field independent  EFT - hidden figure test - look for smaller drawings within big ones  scores on field independence/ dependence are stable over time field dependence and independence and life choices  education and interpersonal relations  the choice of major in college is related to field in/dependence  field independent students tended to favour natural sciences - field dependent tended to focus on social sciences  field dependent tend to rely on social information and are more friendly = field independent people are more calculated and detached  current research on field dependence in dependence  field independent officers showed better reactions to high stimulating simulations Pain tolerance and sensation reducing/ augmenting  pain tolerance  Petrie's research  reducer/ augmenter theory  some appear to reduce sensory information while others appear to augment it  the brain actually has stronger reactions in sensory augmenters  reducers do more stimulating things - drink coffee smoke Personality revealed through interpretation  Kelly's personal construct theory  Kelly believed primary motivation of all people was to predict what was to happen in their life next  constructs - summarizes a set of observations and conveys the meaning of those observations - gravity is example of scientific construct - smart is another (cannot directly show it but can understand through observations like tests)  personal constructs - provides a lens on how people interpret other people\  Postermodernism - in an intellectual position grounded in the notion that reality is constructed, no single version is anymore privileged than another  most basic idea - fundamental postulate - a person's processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which they anticipate events  people can be different, but if their personal construct are similar, they will get along
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