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Chapter 13

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter 13 Emotion and personality  emotions can be defined by their three components - first, emotions have distinct subjective feelings, - second - emotions are accompanied by bodily changes - third - emotions are accompanied by distinct action tendencies - or increases in the probabilities of certain behaviours  functional analysis of emotions by Darwin - emotions involve evolutionary fitness Issues in emotion research  Emotional states versus emotional traits  emotional states are transitory - depend more on a situation  emotional traits - a pattern of emotional reactions that a person consistently experiences across a variety of life situations Categorical versus dimensional approach to emotion  categorical approach - emotions are best though of primary and distinct - anger, joy, anxiety, sadness  dimensional approach - researchers gather data - based on empirical evidence - research suggest most people categorize emotions using two primary dimensions, how pleasant or unpleasant the emotion is, and how high or low on arousal the emotion is Content versus style of emotional life  content is the specific kind of emotion that a person experiences - whereas style is the way in which an emotion is experienced  content of emotional life  the typical emotions a person is likely to experience over time  someone characterized as angry should have an emotional life that contains a good deal of anger  consider kinds of emotions  pleasant emotions  happiness or joy are typically the only pleasant emotions mentioned Definitions of happiness and life satisfaction  to define happiness is to examine how researchers measure it  researchers conceive of happiness in two complementary ways - 1 - in terms of a judgment that life is satisfying, 2 - in terms of the predominance of positive compared with negative emotions in one's life  part of being happy is to have positive illusions about the self - an inflated view of one as good  what good is happiness  happiness correlates with desirable outcomes in life  happiness can come before successes in life  reciprocal causality - which refers to the idea that causality can flow in both directions  what is known about happy people  gender doesn't account for happiness  no one time is happier - no ethnic group is happier  Iceland was the most happy - Dominican and china the worse  no clear answer on money and happiness  personality and well being  two personality traits that influence happiness - extraversion and neuroticism  high extraversion low neuroticism = happy  direct and indirect models - direct - influencing there well being internally - external is when they display characteristics in situation that others don't like, and become sad because others don't like them  mood induction - making the participant feel a certain way  personality has a direct effect Does money make people happy  having a lot of money does not mean happiness - only when you can suffice basic needs Unpleasant emotions  anxiety, depression ,anger  trait anxiety and neuroticism  eyes neck's biological theory  eyeseneck argues that neuroticism is due primarily to a tendency of the limbic system to become easily activated  the limbic system is responsible for emotion and the flight or fight response
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