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PSYC 2740 (174)
Chapter 16

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter 16 The Science and Politics of Studying Sex and Gender - in the early 1970s researchers concluded that women were better at verbal ability and men better at math and spatial ability - only one personality characteristic was different between the sexes: men were more aggressive - by 1992, federal government funded research required members of both sexes to be represented in all federally funded research - the most commonly used statistic in meta-analysis is effect size (d statistic) - those who describe sex differences as small take the minimalist position; they emphasize that the distributions of men and women on any given personality variable show tremendous overlap, which reflects a small magnitude of effect - those who take the maximalist position tend to argue that the magnitude of sex differences is comparable to the magnitude of many other effects in psychology and should not be trivialized Sex Differences in personality - inhibitory control showed the largest sex difference in the moderate range (ability to control inappropriate responses or behaviours) - perceptual sensitivity (ability to detect subtle stimuli from the environment) showed a sex dfference favouring girls (fades when they get older though) - surgency (approach behaviour, high activity, impulsivity) shows boys scoring higher than girls - girls and boys showed no difference in negative affectivity (components like anger, difficulty, amount of distress, sadness) - women are more gregarious but with a small difference - men have a higher activity level - relatively small difference on extraversion (men are more assertive) - men place a greater importance on the value of power - women are more agreeable - trust is the proclivity to cooperate with others, giving others the benefit of the doubt and viewing ones fellow human beings as basically good at heart and tender-mindedness is a nurturant proclivity (empathy and sympathy); women are way more trusting and tender-minded - women smile more often than men (could be a sign of submissiveness rather than agreeableness) - men commit 90% of homocides and more violent crimes of all sorts; after age 50, violent crimes descline and men and women become more similar - women are less emotional stable - men state that they would like to have more than 18 sexual partners in their lifetimes whereas women want only 4 or 5 - the people-things dimension refers to the nature of vocational interests; people who score toward the things end prefer vocations that deal with impersonal objects (carpenters, mechanics, etc) and people scoring toward the people end prefer social occupations - men score at the thing end and women score at the people end
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