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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - Personality Assessment, Measurement, & Research Design.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2740
Professor
Stephen Lewis
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 2: Personality Assessment, Measurement & Research Design Personality Psychology January 17 2012 Sources of Personality Data: Self-report Data (S-data): the information a person reveals through interviews, periodic reports, and questionnaires. 2 forms of Self-report data: Structured: the responses are set (i.e. Dichotomous [i.e., Forced-Choice, yes or no] or Likert ratings [rate something 1-5] Pros: - it’s standard and utilizes stats, - Everyone understands the question and gives similar answers Cons: - limited in responses & limited accuracy Unstructured: the responses are not set (open ended questions) Pros: - very detailed - No limits in responses Cons: - not standard so people might misinterpret the question - Doesn’t use stats Limitations of Self-report Data - Honesty in responses - Not having self-knowledge or objectivity to respond Other s-data Approaches - Event Sampling  Ecological Momentary Assessment: Self-report that occurs over time to assess variables that might change in ‘real-time’ Nock et al. 2009 Experiment - Suicidal and self injury reports - Findings: that suicidal thoughts and self injury thought have unique differences and features, this may be helpful for treatment Observer-report Data (O-data) - Involves gathering data from other individuals (i.e., not the self) Pros: - Access to unique data - Multiple informants - Use of inter-rater reliability: when investigators evaluate the degree of agreement among observers. Cons: - Objectivity - Respondents may not be able to infer internal processes (e.g., feelings) Where O-data Might be Collected? Naturalistic Setting: Observations occur in a natural/real-life setting i.e. gambling behaviour would be observed at a casino Artificial Setting: Observations occur in setting created to resemble a real-life setting - the lack of realness might hinder the results Test Data (T-data) - T-data utilizes standardized testing situations to determine aspects of personality and takes various forms: Mechanical Recording – i.e. bracelet to measure physical activities Physiological Data – i.e. measure your heart rate Projective Tests – i.e. what do you see in this picture? Limitations of T-data: - Participants may ‘guess’ the trait being assessed & create an impression - Participants & researchers may view the testing situation differently - The influence of the researcher(s) on the participant(s) Life-Outcome Data (L-Data): - Refers to the information that can be gleaned from the events, activities, and outcomes in a person’s life that are available to public scrutiny. (i.e. marriages and divorces are a matter o
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