out of a line up you would choose “coke”. Thus, subliminal information
primes associated material into memory.
o Priming makes that associated material more accessible to conscious
awareness than is material that is not primed.
o Vast majority of research on subliminal research suggests that
unconscious information does not influence people’s motivations.
I.e. if they flash “coke” on the screen it does not make you want
to go buy a coke.
o In the cognitive view of the unconscious, the content of the
unconscious mind is assumed to operate just like the thoughts in
Thoughts are unconscious because they are not in the
conscious awareness, not because they have been repressed or
because they represent unacceptable urges or wishes.
- Id Psychology: Freud’s version of psychoanalysis focused on the id, and how
the ego and superego respond to the demands of the id.
- Ego Psychology: A shift in focus occurred when a student of Freud, Erik
Erikson, emphasized that the ego deserved much more attention and that it
was a powerful and independent part of personality.
o Erikson noted that the ego was involved in mastering the
environment, achieving one’s goals, and establishing one’s identity.
- A primary function of the ego is to establish a secure identity.
- Identity can be thought of as an inner sense of whom we are, of what makes
us unique and a sense of continuity over time and a feeling of wholeness.
- Identity Crisis: refers to the desperation and confusion a person feels when
he or she has not developed a strong sense of identity.
o Very common to occur during adolescence and later in life, called the
Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development
- Erikson disagreed with Freud in his stages of development in a lot of areas.
o Erikson believed that Freud’s Latency Stage had a lot more
psychological development going on then Freud thought.
o Erikson believed that the crises at each stage were not sexual as Freud
thought, but rather were of a social nature.
Psychosocial Conflicts: i.e. Crises of learning to trust parents,
learning to be autonomous from them, learning from them how
to act as an adult.
o Erikson did agree with Freud in some areas:
First he kept a Stage Model of Development: implying that
people go through stages in a certain order and that there is a
specific issue that characterizes each stage.