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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Psychoanalytic Approaches-Contemporary Issues.docx

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter 10: Psychoanalytic Approaches: Contemporary Issues Personality Psychology February 14 , 2012 Repression and Contemporary Research on Memory - False Memories: Memories that have been “implanted” for events that did NOT occur. - Important to identify the processes that can lead to a false memory: o Popular Press  Popular books for example that suggest to people that if you are feeling depressed, have low self-esteem, or have sexual dysfunction etc. you probably have repressed memories of being abused early in your life. o Behaviour of Some Therapists  Hypnosis has been proven to not improve memory at all. Under hypnosis people are more imaginative, more spontaneous and more emotional. It has been associated with increased distortions of memory.  Imagination Inflation Effect: occurs when a memory is elaborated upon through imagination, leading the person to confuse the imagined event with events that actually happened.  I.e. After showing a person an advertisement suggesting that they shook hands with Mickey Mouse as a child, those people later had a higher confidence that they had personally shook hands with Mickey Mouse.  Therapists can suffer from Confirmatory Bias: the tendency to look only for evidence that confirms their previous hunch and to not look for evidence that might disconfirm their belief. Contemporary Views on the Unconscious - Motivated Unconscious: According to Freud, the conscious was a boiling and fuming cauldron of anger and eroticism. o It operated according to it’s own primitive and irrational rules, and it had broad, sweeping influence over our conscious behaviour, thoughts and feelings. - Cognitive Unconscious: those with the cognitive unconscious view readily acknowledge that information can get into our memories without ever being aware of the information. o For Example: In the phenomenon, Subliminal Perception, some information such as a phrase “Buy a Coke” is flashed on the so quickly that you don’t recognize the actual words. When asked to pick a word out of a line up you would choose “coke”. Thus, subliminal information primes associated material into memory. o Priming makes that associated material more accessible to conscious awareness than is material that is not primed. o Vast majority of research on subliminal research suggests that unconscious information does not influence people’s motivations.  I.e. if they flash “coke” on the screen it does not make you want to go buy a coke. o In the cognitive view of the unconscious, the content of the unconscious mind is assumed to operate just like the thoughts in consciousness.  Thoughts are unconscious because they are not in the conscious awareness, not because they have been repressed or because they represent unacceptable urges or wishes. Ego Psychology - Id Psychology: Freud’s version of psychoanalysis focused on the id, and how the ego and superego respond to the demands of the id. - Ego Psychology: A shift in focus occurred when a student of Freud, Erik Erikson, emphasized that the ego deserved much more attention and that it was a powerful and independent part of personality. o Erikson noted that the ego was involved in mastering the environment, achieving one’s goals, and establishing one’s identity. - A primary function of the ego is to establish a secure identity. - Identity can be thought of as an inner sense of whom we are, of what makes us unique and a sense of continuity over time and a feeling of wholeness. - Identity Crisis: refers to the desperation and confusion a person feels when he or she has not developed a strong sense of identity. o Very common to occur during adolescence and later in life, called the midlife crisis. Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development - Erikson disagreed with Freud in his stages of development in a lot of areas. o Erikson believed that Freud’s Latency Stage had a lot more psychological development going on then Freud thought. o Erikson believed that the crises at each stage were not sexual as Freud thought, but rather were of a social nature.  Psychosocial Conflicts: i.e. Crises of learning to trust parents, learning to be autonomous from them, learning from them how to act as an adult. o Erikson did agree with Freud in some areas:  First he kept a Stage Model of Development: implying that people go through stages in a certain order and that there is a specific issue that characterizes each stage.  Second he believed that each stage represented a conflict, a development crisis, which needed to be solved.  Third he maintained the notion of fixation, meaning that if the crisis was not successfully and adaptively resolved, then personality development could become arrested and the person would continue to be preoccupied by that crisis in development. 1. Trust vs. Mistrust - Starts at infancy - “Does the child find caregivers reliable?” - When children are born they are completely dependent on those around them. - If they are well taken care of and their basic needs are met they will develop a sense of trust in their caregivers which forms the basis of future relationships, with such children growing up believing that other people are approachable and trustable. - However if they are not taken care of, they may develop a sense that others are no to be trusted and have feelings of suspiciousness, isolation, estrangement, and social discomfort. 2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt - Starts around 2 years. - “How much of the world do I control?” - A good outcome is when a child feels a sense of control and develops self- confidence and a sense of autonomy by exploring and learning. - If a parent is very strict and punishes a child when being independent, the child might feel shame and doubt over goals he or she is contemplating. - Overly protective parents might hinder their child’s natural urge to explore a wide variety of life’s events. 3. Initiative vs. Guilt - Starts around 3 years. - “Does the child initiate tasks and goals?” - At this stage children begin imitating adults, by practicing their skills by organizing games, choosing leaders, and forming goals. - Then during school activities they also take the initiative to accomplish goals and to work with a distinct purpose of mind. - If all goes well the child develops a sense of initiative, which translate to ambition and goal seeking. - And if they don’t, the child might be scared to pursue goals for the fear of failure. 4. Industry vs. Inferiority - Starts at the time of elementary school - “Does the child feel good at what he or she does?” - Children begin to compare themselves with other children (classmates), and they develop a sense of competence and achievement. They believe that if they work hard enough their strengths and abilities can do most things they desire to do. - Sense of Industry: feeling as if they can work to achieve what they want - Sense of Inferiority: feeling they don’t have the talent or ability to get ahead in life. 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion - Starts in adolescence - “Who am I?” “Do others recognize me for who I think I am?” - Experimenting with identities is common at this stage in life (i.e. one year an athlete and the next year a punk rocker) - Eventually most people make some decisions about what is important, what they value and w
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