Chapter 13: Emotion and Personality
March 1 , 2012
What are Emotions?
- Emotions: can be defined as three components:
o First, emotions have distinct subjective feelings, or affects, associated
o Second, emotions are accompanied by bodily changes, mostly in the
nervous system, and these produce associated changes in breathing,
heart rate, muscle tension, blood chemistry and facial and bodily
o Third, emotions are accompanied by action tendencies: increases in
the probabilities of certain behaviours.
- Emotional State:
o Depends more on the situation a person is in than on the specific
o I.e. A man is angry because he was treated unfairly.
- Emotional Trait:
o A pattern of emotional reactions that a person consistently
experiences across a variety of life situations.
o I.e. We expect Mary to be cheerful at home, work and at school.
- Categorical Approach:
o Researchers who think that primary emotions are key. (anger,