PSYC 2740 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Hyperconnected Space

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2740
Professor
Chapter 13: Emotion and Personality
Personality Psychology
March 1st, 2012
What are Emotions?
- Emotions: can be defined as three components:
o First, emotions have distinct subjective feelings, or affects, associated
with them.
o Second, emotions are accompanied by bodily changes, mostly in the
nervous system, and these produce associated changes in breathing,
heart rate, muscle tension, blood chemistry and facial and bodily
expressions.
o Third, emotions are accompanied by action tendencies: increases in
the probabilities of certain behaviours.
- Emotional State:
o Depends more on the situation a person is in than on the specific
person.
o I.e. A man is angry because he was treated unfairly.
- Emotional Trait:
o A pattern of emotional reactions that a person consistently
experiences across a variety of life situations.
o I.e. We expect Mary to be cheerful at home, work and at school.
- Categorical Approach:
o Researchers who think that primary emotions are key. (anger,
sadness, joy)
o Primary emotions are thought to be the irreducible set of emotions,
combinations of which result in the huge variety of experienced
emotions.
- Dimensional Approach:
o Researchers gather data by having subjects rate themselves on a wide
variety of emotions, then apply statistical techniques to identify the
basic dimensions underlying the ratings.
o This model of emotion suggest that every feeling state can be
described as a combination of pleasantness/unpleasantness and
arousal.
I.e. A person can feel unpleasant feelings in a very high arousal
way (nervous, anxious, terrified) or in a very low arousal way
(bored, fatigued, tired). Similarly, a person can feel pleasant
feelings in a very high arousal way (excited, enthusiastic,
elated) or in a very low arousal way (calm, relaxed).
- Content of Emotion:
o A specific kind of emotion that a person experiences.
- Style of Emotion:
o The way in which the emotion is experienced.
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Document Summary

Emotional state: depends more on the situation a person is in than on the specific person, i. e. A man is angry because he was treated unfairly. Emotional trait: a pattern of emotional reactions that a person consistently experiences across a variety of life situations, i. e. We expect mary to be cheerful at home, work and at school. Categorical approach: researchers who think that primary emotions are key. (anger, sadness, joy, primary emotions are thought to be the irreducible set of emotions, combinations of which result in the huge variety of experienced emotions. A person can feel unpleasant feelings in a very high arousal way (nervous, anxious, terrified) or in a very low arousal way (bored, fatigued, tired). Similarly, a person can feel pleasant feelings in a very high arousal way (excited, enthusiastic, elated) or in a very low arousal way (calm, relaxed). Content of emotion: a specific kind of emotion that a person experiences.

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