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Chapter 4

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PSYC 2740
Andrew Robinson

Chapter 4: Personality  Experimental Research: Independent versus Dependent variables  Advantages: conclusions about cause and effect relationships. Gives researcher a degree of control  Disadvantages: o Demand characteristics (clues in the experimental setting or procedure that enable the participant to figure out the hypothesis and act in a manner to support it) o Low in external validity (the motion that differences in behaviours that are obtained in the lab may be artificial and not reflect what happens in real world settings). o Therefore, low in generalizability (generalizing beyond the lab to more naturalistic contexts  Independent variable: the variable that is manipulated within an experiment. Created change and is casual. 2 types. Always has two different conditions. o Manipulated variable: where one level or form of the variable is applied by the experimenter to a subset of the experiment participants but a different level or form of the independent variable is applied to another subset of participants. o Subject variable: differences between people that can be used to classify participants into discrete groups when conducting an experiment.  Experimental condition: 1 of 2 or more levels of an independent variable that a participant receives in an experiment.  Random Assignment: a key part of those experiments that are designed to make inferences about cause and effect relations. Participants should be allocated randomly to one of the experimental conditions so that additional variables that might influence behaviour are spread but evenly across the groups.  Between subjects Variable: When one level of an independent variable is applied to some participants in an experiment but not others.  Within-subject variable: a repeated measure in an experiment. Participant is exposed to two or more levels of the independent variable. The unique characteristics of the person are controlled because they are common to all levels of the independent variable.  Order Effect: when the same person is used repeatedly across different experimental conditions, the order that the conditions are experienced in may create a source of bias  Dependent Variable: the outcome variable that is measured in an experiment. Represents the effect  Interaction or Moderator effect: when the effect of an independent variable is moderated or influenced by the level of another independent variable  Mediator Effects: a link between two variables which exists as a result of their mutual link with an intervening variable. This intervening variable influences both of these variables/ 3 variable.  Additive model: the model that 2 factors make independent contributions to the prediction of the outcome variable. Also known as main effects model.  Tertial Split: the division of a sample into thirds based on the distribution of scores  Median split: What a researcher performs when interested in creating only 2 groups. The researcher establishes a midpoint in the range of scored on the variable in question; people above this midpoint would be in one group and those below would be in the other.  Regression to the mean: When extreme scores are pulled wither by decreasing or increasing toward the mean or middle  Measurement Error: What is present when a number that has been measured and counted is not an accurate reflection of the true value  Correlation research: doesn’t allow us to make assumptions about causality o Positive correlation: a linear association between variables such that as one variable tends to increase the other variable tends to increase to a corresponding degree o Negative correlation: exists when there is a linear association between variables such that as one variable decreases the other variable decreases to a corresponding degree o Third Variable problem: the problem that a possible influence of a 3 variable limits the ability to conclude that one variable or factor the cause of another. Both factors could be influenced mutually by another variable o Directionality issue: the issue that if two variables are related all that can be stated is that they are associated with each other; it cannot be assumed that the variability associated with one variable caused or contributed to the variability of the other variable. Cannot tell which one came first. Most studies are self report and correlational studies. Most are cross sectional and use alone time assessment of a large sample of students.  Structured Assessments: close ended scaled in which the scale content has already been determined by the people that have constructed the measure. Respondents select from options provided to them.  Unstructured Assessments: open ended assessments where people generate their responses. Can be in the form of verbal responses in a interview Self-Report Limitations  S
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