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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Summary.rtf

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2740
Professor
Andrew Robinson

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Chapter 11 Summary A Brief History of Conceptualizing the Self • Early psychology = personal experience introspection used to assess examined & reported on states of consciousness • Conscious mind consisted of individual’s of him/herself self-concept • Wilhelm Wundt: regarded self in terms of person’s experience of own body self defined by concepts ie. muscle tension, sensation of internal states, etc. • William James published work led to diff. view of self-concept self = main factor in mental life William James: • Contributions to theory & research on self st • Onesthe 1 self-concept theorists prompted view that self-concept = multidimensional & gave 1 of 1 definitions of self-esteem • Posited 3 components of self-concept: 1) material me 2) social me 3) spiritual me • o Material me: very surface-level account of self. Material possession on body & contexts linked to one’s body (eg. home & family environment). • o Social me: individual’s awareness of his/her identity in eyes of others. May be diff. social me’s as there are people in our lives. Diff. social me’s depending on how each person perceives us. Other people part of our situations & each person represents diff social situations. Social theory = notion self-esteem is barometer of our relationships, goes up/down depending on quality of interactions & sense of +’ve connection w/ others • o Spiritual me: most abstract and vague aspect of self-concept. Incorporates awareness of our mental processes in terms of our subjective sense of thoughts & feelings. Likened spiritual me = ones soul • James did NOT examine 3 components in terms of cross-cultural differences but nature will vary according to culture • Inner spiritual linked with complex relational social self • Spiritual self represented by concept of “atman-brahman” • o Atman = realization of one’s true/essential self, realization that essential self = indistinguishable from absolute reality aka Brahman • o Brahman consists of spiritual absolute ubiquitous and free of form & matter • Material me plays role b/c atman fused at birth w/ material aspects of self • Social self in India: doing duty & respecting hierarchy duties according to extended family, caste, state/country. 4 social values: • o Moksa – spiritual empancipation this take precedence • o Dharma – righteous actions • o Artha - wealth • o Kama - pleasure • James gave thought on how we regard ourselves (self satisfaction vs. dissatisfaction) • He defined self-esteem # of successes divided by pretensions (aims & expectations) ratio of actualities/accomplishments vs. expectations • 2 way to raise self-esteem = 1) increase accomplishments 2) lower goal/espectations The Looking Glass Self: • Looking Glass Self = sense of our self depends on reactions of others & watching hoe others treat us is like looking in a mirror to see oneself. • Felson (1989) symbolic interactionism approach 3 components = self appraisal, actual appraisal of others, person’s perception of other people’s appraisal. 3 rdcomponent = reflective appraisal • Actual appraisal only operates on self through reflected appraisals so no predictive value of actual appraisals on self if reflected have been taken into account. • Achievement context research shows perceptions of significant others relate to self perceptions • Our perceptions of people’s expectation = vital role Shah showed perceived expectations of sig. other & perceived values they attach to outcomes = force that directs our goal pursuits, goal appraisals, expectations • Tice (1992): looking glass may become magnifying glass b/c behaviors performed in public more likely to be internalized in form of self-concept change vs. performing behavior in private. • Mead (1934) symbolic interactionism theory = we view self from standpoint of social groups. Social groups combine give sense of generalized other self reflection = social construction w/ sense of roles that others expect us to adopt. • Symbolic interactionism = actual treatment received from others, perception of treatment, & how it feeds back/ shapes self-concept. • Most people are accurate in appraisals of how others view them • Low association b/w way people actually see a person vs. person’s appraisal of these social evaluations • Kenny and DePaulo (1993) – Meta-accuracy = extent people know how others see them • o 3 conclusions: a. 1) when people interact with others, they have generalized meta-perception = highly consistent b. 2) level of meta-accuracy depends on whether focus is on specific dyad or on others in general c. 3) when in dyads people achieve small degree of accuracy, but great accuracy w/ global focus • Moderate association b/w self perception and how others view us association strong than association b/w self-perception and actual level of ability • Bi-directional influence of other’s appraisal effect on us and how we effect others • James Baldwin (1894) – role of imitation in self-concept processes emphasized imitation role in develop. of self-consciousness. • Introduced concept of how person views himself can have influence on how we perceive others • Freud’s notion of ego equated w/ self concept • Horney (1932) distinguished b/w self-love & self-alienation self-love essential for happiness, but form of self-love is imp. b/c there are various forms of neurotic self-love. • Horney – self-alienation emerges w/ estrangement from true/actual self The Divided Self: • Rogerian notion = actual self manifested becomes distinct from ideal self • R.D. Laing: root of psychosis in schizophrenia = disparity b/w patient’s presented false self & true self • False self = result of long process which person developed unembodied self w/ sense of detachment from own physical being • False self develops in response to perceived expectations of significant others, but significant others may be perceived as malevolent fear of paranoid schizophrenia • Laing used personality to describe publicly presented self schizophrenia due to deep divided & alienation b/w true self and presented mask Erik Erikson and the Psychosocial Stages of Development • Erik Erikson: world-renowned development theorist • Promoting study of development through life span & role of psychosocial factors + how adult self concept develops w/i relationships • Promoted imp. of personal identity & identity crisis concept • Erikson = one of the earliest psychobiographers • Provided life history analyses • Theoretical views: development and need to establish sense if identity = reflection of own experiences • Erikson was trained as a painter, but at 25 got job as tutor for 1 of Freud’s patients & became friends with Anna Freud who taught him psychoanalytic techniques. • Erikson’s theory differs from Feud’s in several ways: • o Erikson’s theory for full lifespan vs Freud’s only to beginning of adulthood • o Erikson postulated 8 diff. stages & focused on personality development in elderly • Each stage has task involving crisis & results in +’ve psychological quality if successful • Crisis because each stage requires radical change in perspective. • o Focused on psychosocial stages NOT psychosexual stages • o Focused on ego rather that superego referred to as ego psychologist • Psychosocial Crisis: According to Erikson • o Psychosocial development reflected interplay of biological & physical attributes + social factors • o Social factors involves cultural influences cultural influences contribute to sense of identity • Suggested distress may result from developing personal identity that inconsistent w/ person’s surrounding. • Key consideration is if there is fit b/w how someone sees himself & culture they are in • Erikson’s 8 Stages: Conflict Age Thematic question Trust vs. Mistrust Birth – 18 months Is there a trusting (HOPE) relationship w. caregiver/ or a sense of shame? Autonomy vs. Shame & 1.5 – 3 years Does child learn sense of Doubt (WILL) autonomy & self-control or sense of shame? Initiative vs. Guilt 3 – 6 years Is child approx. assertive (PURPOSE) & independent/too forceful, leading to guilt? Industry vs. Inferiority 6 – 12 years Can child master new (COPETENCE) tasks and devel. new skills or feel incompetent? Identity vs. Role 12 – 18 years Can teen get sense of Confusion (FIDELITY) identity & self in terms of relationship w/ peers & current and future life roles? Intimacy vs. Isolation 18 – 40 years Is loving, intimate (LOVE) relationship formed, or is person disconnected? Generativity vs. 40 – 65 years Does person find ways to Stagnation (CARE) contribute to next generation or lead stagnant existence? Ego Integrity vs. 65 – 80 years Is person able to accept Despair (WISDOM) life or preoccupied w/ unfinished business marked by fear of death? • Stages are epigenetic step by step model • Childhood ends after 4 stage, 1 stage of early adulthood involves establishing sense of identity even if not ready to do so. • Central to each stage = resolution of key task/challenge to move to next stage & get certain psychological characteristics • 1 4 stages similar to Freud’s, but Erikson uses psychosocial challenges NOT psychosexual urges • Erikson believed each new stage of life cycle requires to work through the stages in appropriate was for particular phase of life cycle. • Stages not mutually exclusive • Attempts to resolve new psychosocial crisis may result in re-emergence of issues from earlier stages issues are +’ve or –‘ve • Development across age stages contributes to greater social breadth as age increases, “social radius” broadens • Erikson’s theory includes personality development in adolescents focus on adolescent’s struggle to develop sense of personal identity figure out what kind of person you are & person like to become • Attainment of identity = in quality of fidelity (exactness & faithful reproduction of self) failure to achieve = sense of identity diffusion, confusion, & -‘ve identity -‘ve identity reflects aimlessness & antisocial • Sense of identity w/ respect to occupational goals = IMP. • Unclear sense of identity may rely on cliques foster stereotypes & intolerant orientation toward others The Identity Crisis: From Erikson’s theory • Identity Crisis: Failed search for sense of personal identity in adolescents and early adulthood • Some don’t form identity spend life searching • Baumeister, Shapiro, Tice (1985): 2 discernible types of identity crisis a. 1. Identity Deficit: person seeking to establish desired identity eg. “I Don’t know who I am” b. 2. Identity Conflict: 2/more aspects of self are in opposition eg. “I am the type of person who wants be w/ people, but does want to” essence is finding oneself in impossible situation due to conflict-ridden aspects of self • NOTE: according to Erikson’s scheme must develop intact/clear sense of personal identity before establish loving relationship that requires sharing intact self w/ other person Criticism of this is people do have relationship before have sense of identity • Better to consider personality development through life than regarding personality as fixed eg. Michael J. Fox, diagnosed w/ Parkinson’s changed sense of identity • Some people who have sense of identity, fluctuations possible & may not maintain that identity • Mature and immature forms of identity can vary over lifespan Generativity in Older People: • Generativity (vs. Stagnation) associated w/ middle adulthood • Generativity: willingness to engage in acts to promote well-being of younger generations to promote long-term survival of species • Erikson highlighted generativity role in psychobiographical case analyses • Generativity can be expressed w/ parents raising & taking care of their children, but many forms & not limited to people who are parents • Generativity = primarily communal focus • McAdam et al.: say generativity reflects themes of agency and communion • Communion reflected be promoting well-being of others • Agency = need to have impact on next generation • McAdams & de St. Aubin outlined first complete theory generativity generativity motivated by 2 sources: a. 1) Inner desire (included need to be needed) b. 2) Cultural demand • Cultural demand = normative (degree varies depending on people’s culture) & expected of adults • Cultures vary in extent they have constraints that mitigate against expression of generative desires • Inner desire & cultural demand in place = contribute to salient concern of next generation • Other elements = commitment to generativity, strong belief in species and its importance, engagement in specific actions to promote others well-being • Ability to achieve sense of generativity has +’ve correlates. Marcia’s Levels of Ego Identity Status: • Extension of Erikson’s identity concept • Marcia qualified Erikson’s model suggested ego identity is not all/nothing thing. • Outlined continuous view 4 levels of ego identity status: a. 1) Identity achievement b. 2) Moratorium c. 3) Foreclosure d. 4) Identity diffusion • 4 levels reflect 2 variable: a. 1) Crisis (period of choosing b/w alternatives b. 2) Commitment (amount of personal investigation/importance person displays) • Identity status = reflection of commitment & exploration of interpersonal values, ideology, occupational pursuits • Marcia’s 2 endpoint’s reflect 2 outcomes by Erikson • Identity diffusion = “worst case scenario” b/c people have most insecure forms of attachment & distance from parents these people are vulnerable & reactive to others attempts to manipulate their self-esteem • “Moratorium” = shutdown/freezing of activity where current status quo is maintained person usually in identity crisis period & trying to make commitments (are vague) • “Foreclosure” = clear expression of commitment, but not experienced meaningful identity crisis difficult to determine where parent’s goals for them end and where theirs begins great over idealization of family involves greatest cognitive rigidity & acceptance of authoritarian beliefs • Identity status & personality structure never linked • Low neuroticism & high conscientiousness/extroversion predicts identity achievment • Moratorium and diffusion associated w/ high neuroticism, low agreeableness, low conscientiousness • 5 generativity status profiles along continuum by considering variations in involvement levels & generativity activity inclusiveness • Marcia developed open-ended interview for 4 statuses Marcia’s identity status questionnaire TABLE 11.2 pg 445 Motives and the Self-Concept • 5 motives guide self-concept & ways we behave: a. 1) Accurate self-evaluation: people uncertain about their characteristics, opinions, and abilities Self-verification theory = people strive to confirm sense of self to foster predictability and control b. 2) Self-consistency: desire for Accurate self-evaluation, desire to preserve community & unity in their self-systems implication = have –‘ve view of themselves & depression prone -‘ve feedback about self in order to maintain consistent stable view. c. 3) Self-enhancement: desire for this from people who feel defensive and threatened. Based on improving feelings about self. d. 4) Self-improvement: refine self means striving for perfection comparable to Self- enhancement e. 5) Self-presentation: people acting like “performers” present idealized self-image form of impression management. “Front” = front that we put on for social impression • Motives seen in social comparison choices • Festinger (1954): social comparison occurs when people are uncertain they compare self w/ others • Festinger (1954): similarity hypothesis = based on premise that we seek similar others b/c provides most relavant info about ourself. • Self-evaluation: compare self w/ similar other • Self-improvement: compare self w/ best available other to become like them • Self-enhancement: compare w/ worst available other for self-esteem boost • Gergen (1972): Conducted Mr. Clean vs. Mr. Dirty study Representations & Conceptualizations of the Self-Concept Self-Complexity & Self-Concept Clarity: • Self-complexity: individual differences • Linville (1987): some people organize self-knowledge into main categories involving self, other organize into several personally meaningful & highly salient categories. • Self-complexity degree imp. for stress & threat (vulnerability & maladjustment) • Children low in self-complexity vulnerable to stress & depression • Self-concept clarity: differs b/w people, degree of certainty & lack of ambiguity of people regarding self-concept • Low self-concept clarity in people high in Eriksonian concept of identity diffusion • Low self-esteem = less self-concept clarity (less clear sense of who they are), personality ratings variable over time, less correspondence b/w self-conception & actual behavior • McGregor et al.: high self esteem people actively try to increase sense if self-certainty when faced w/ info/situation that makes the feel uneasy • McGregor et al.: describes compensatory conviction = phenomenon linked w/ motive for self- consistency. mode of repression defensive function of keeping unwanted thought on self out of consciousness tendency to devel. more extreme view of absolute certainty on issues seemingly unrelated to self – cognitive distraction PART 2: The Spontaneous Self-Concept: • Spontaneous self-concept: spontaneous measure measured by Mcguire & Padawer-Singer Tells Us About Yourself Procedure unstructured measure non-reactive, content-free, not like questionnaire. • Children’s responses sorted into several categories activities, significant others, attitudes, school, demographic features, physical characteristics, self-evaluation. • B/c 7 categories required to capture responses, little doubt spontaneous self-concept = multifaceted/ multidimensional. • Self-concept = more than self-esteem self-evaluat
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