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PSYC 2740
Andrew Robinson

Chapter 5: Psychodynamic Theories Psycho-dynamic theory and Sigmund Freud  Personality is a reflection of the dynamic interplay of internal motives and conflict  Endorse the importance of unconscious influences on our conscious behaviours, thoughts, and feelings  Introspective method: analysis of internal thoughts and images, including dreams  Sigmund Freud th o Most famous people of 20 century Components of the Psyche  Id: structure that is present at birth and is the primitive and elast rational part of ourselves. Unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principles  Pleasure principle: Concept that the ID is a demaning structure that seeks pleasure and immediate gratification without concern for the possible consequences of inappropriate thought and actions  Libido: an indiviudals psychic energy that demands expression, contained in the id. Believed to be fuelled by this psychosexual energy  Primary Process thinking: tendency for a person to generate cognitive images of pleasurable stimuli. Would occur when fantasizing about sexual activities with someone who is appealing yet unavailable.  Wish fulfillment: satisfying a which or desire through primary process thinking  Catharsis: reduction of tension by engaging in processes that provide some temporary relief  Eros: sexual energy and life instinct postulated by Freud, reflected in the libido.  Thanatos: death instinct, as proposed by Freud  Ego: develops out of the id, and this proves starts to occur in the second half of baby’s first year, Mostly but not entirely conscious. Main pupors is to address the demands of the environment and reality  Reality Principle: principle by which the ego tries to balance the primitive urges of the id with the reality of the situation  Secondary process thinking: planful thoughts and decisions that consider environmental contingencies and challenges  Superego: moralistic part of personality that forms between the ages of 3 or 4. Requires us to act according to accepted societal standards, rules, and principles. Overly strong super ego contributed to moral anxiety  Perfection Principle: principle that drives the funtioning of the superego (we must act perfectly by meeting societal dictates, which often come in the form of endorsing and internalizing our parents’ values)  Oedipus complex: Freud’s concept that a boy in the phallic stagre of development desires his mother. Identification with the father out of fear of his response contributes to superego development. Chapter 5: Psychodynamic Theories  Castration anxiety: what a boy feels when he fears that his father will remove his penis as punishment for desiring his mother  Introjections: process of identification where a person comes to internalize another’s values; implicated during superego development  Penis envy: envy of bys felt by girls, who can compensate for their own lace of a penis by developing a relationship with the father. Part of the Electra complex  Womb envy: type of envy experienced by males because of their inability to bear a child. Proposed as an alternative to Freud’s concept of penis envy among females Freud’s Views on Culture  Freud focused on culture as a source of dissatisfaction. Four sources of dissatisfaction: o Individual must give up his or her power to the broader group o Civilization restricts individual freedom o Biological instincts of eros and thanatos must be renounces in favour of co operation and affiliation o Cultural limitations are places on sexuality  Suggested that process of is, ego and superego development occurs not only at the level of individual person, but also at the societal level o As societies evolve, they must develop a superego, and morals involved must become internalized and widely accepted without question o Cultures differ in their blends of the eros and thanatos instincts, and this accounts for why some cultures appear to be much happier and more pleasant than other cultures Freud’s Stage Theory of Psychosexual Development  Psychosexual stages: stages in Freud’s theory that at different ages, a particular area of the body is the main source of please and sexual gratification for the id and its impulses  Fixation: what results from getting too much or too little gratification in a psychosexual stage. Involves becoming stuck or fixated at a particular stage, and the adult personality is a reflection of when and if fixation has occurred  Oral stage: when the same person is used repeatedly across different experimental conditions, the order that the conditions are experienced in may create a source of bias.  Anal Stage: second stage, 18 months to 3-4 years. Pleasure is centered around the anus. Too much or too little gratification at this stage results in an anal retentive or anal expressive personality  Phallic Stage: libidinal pleasure is focused on the genital area. Ages 4-6 years, most controversial of the stages because it includes Oedipus and Electra complexes Chapter 5: Psychodynamic Theories  Latency Period: 6 to 12 years, urges seem relatively dormant and sublimated into a focus on school activities and achievements and developing and maintaining friendships  Genital Stage: Coicides closely with adolescence and the physical changes that accompany puberty. Pleasure refocused on genital area with goal of establishing healthy heterosexual relationships Defence Mechanisms  Neurotic Anxiety: form of anxiety suggested by Freud that reflects the id’s predominance in the conflict among the id, ego and superego.  Realistic Anxiety: what is experienced if the ego is in control; also known as objective anxiety  Moral Anxiety: anxiety that reflects fear that the superego will overwhelm the go  Defence Mechanism: unconscious strategy that helps the ego by warding off anxiety; often referred to as ego efence mechanisms o Repressions: submergence of distressing impulses and past experiences into the unconscious, where they continue to operate. One of the most significant defence mechanisms, repression resembles the act of forgetting  Denial: Refusing to recognize objective events in conscious awareness. Example: Not accepting the death of someone who has been missing at sea  Projection: Attributing personally undersirable thoughts/feelings to others. Example: Addressing erotic urges by accusing your friend of being a skank  Reaction Formation: Trandforming unacceptable thoughts/urges into their exact opposite. Ex: Having left-wing values and working for ultra- conservatives or vice versa  Displacement: Redirecting distress from original target to someone/something else. Ex: Yelling at your partner because of your frustration with your boss  Regression: Retreating to an earlier stage when life was presumably simpler  Immature Defences: Highly maladaptive defence mechanisms  Mature Defences: adaptive defence mechanisms  Sublimation: Chanelling unacceptable impulses into positive behaviour or artistic forms of expression. Ex: Former US president Bill Clinton playing the saxophone.  Rationalization: Involves coming up with a cognitive explanation to counter unacceptable thoughts, impulses, and behaviours. Contemporary Theory and Research on Repression and Other Defence Styles  Research on repressors indicated that they are quite good at avoiding exposure to emotional information; they are less likely to recall negative emotional information in the short term, and they are quick to recall negative emotional information in the short term, and they are quick to recall happier times after watching unpleasant, upsetting stimuli. Chapter 5: Psychodynamic Theories  Other recent findings indicate that repressors are good at repressing emotion in the short term, but there is a “rebound effect” and they are more likely to suffer from intrusive emotional memories in the long run  Defence styles: the typical ways that people respond when feeling anxious and challenged.  Vaillant’s hierarchical model of defence mechanism: defence styles vary in their relative levels of maladaptiveness versus adaptiveness, as well as their associated levels of developmental maturity o The four levels described by Vaillant are psychotic defences (delusions and distortions), immature defences (projection, denial), neurotic defences (reaction formation), and mature defences(sublimation). o Vaillant’s and Freud’s views of defence mechanisms differ in three key respects.  First, as alluded above, whereas Freud regarded most defences as primarily maladaptive, Vaillant acknowledges the adaptiveness of certain defences  Second, both authors focus on the role of early experiences in developing defences, but Vaillant allows for current experiences to also have a role  Finally, whereas Freud focused on the internal, intraphsycial origins of defences, Vaillant accepts that external events also can have an impact. Evaluation of Freud’s Contributions  Another overarching concern of Freud’s work is the great importance that he placed on the concept of libido and psychosexual energy  Another limitation is Freud’s reliance on the case study method.  One criticism ispsychoanalytic treatment is that in the Freudian approach, the agent of change is the therapist himself or herself. The psychoanalyst’s job is to analyze and provide interpretations to clients  Another concern is Freud’s patronizing views of women, including the notion that women lack a strong superego  Finally, many authors have taken issue with the notion that personality is fixed and is based on early childhood experiences.  Although Freud is a highly controversial figure, there is no doubt that he made several important contributions o First, his developmental theory paved they way for subsequent advances in the study of children, and although he was not the first to discuss the concept, he certaintly drew attention to the importance of unconscious factors. o Second, contemporary research leaves little doubt that the unconscious exists and can have a profund influence on us o Freud also deserves to be commended for his role in linking personality nd culture. Chapter 5: Psychodynamic Theories o Finally, he should be commended for attempting to provide comprehensive, controversial theory that drew the publics attention to the importance of psychological factors. The Neo-Freudians: Carl Jung’s analytic Psychology  Some people have argued that Carl Jung’s theory has had as much impact as Freud’s theory.  Jung rejected the notion that conflict reflects psychosexual energy.  He observed that Freud considered the cause of the repression to be a sexual trauma  He also rejected Freud’s notion that dreams have a deceptive aspect to them. Jung regarded dreams as a natural form of self-expression, and although the symbols in dreams still required interpretation and understanding they were not a reflection of psychosexual conflicts The personal and collective Unconscious  Jung believed that we had a personal unconscious: the part of ourselves that reflects our own experiences and conflicts, which distinguishes us and makes us unique  Complexes: the personal unconscious, as described by Jung, is composed of feeling tones sources of energy that reflect personal conflicts and tensions  Collective unconscious: A shared form of unconscious postulated by Jung. It consists of universal symbols known as archetypes  Archetypes: Inherited universal symbols that reflect our instincts and how they are expressed. Jung suggested that archetypes are primoridnal element suggested by Dollard and Miller Specific Archetypes  Individuation: occurs when a person becomes a psychological individual by achieving a separate unity or whole.  Amima/ animus archetype: a highly significant one because the anima refers to the hidden, feminine side of en, and the animus refers to the hidden, masculine side of women.  Androgynous individuals are characterized jointly by the instrumental characteristics associated stereotypically with masculinately, and the expressive characteristics associated stereotypically with femininity.  Shadow archetype: refers to a darks ide of personality that is in all of us, according to jung. He proposed that the shadow is responsible.  One pessimistic aspect of this notion is that since the ollective unconscious will always include the shadow, it is likely that wars will continue throughout history Popular Application of Jungian  Synchronicity: refers to the coincidental co-occurrence of two things that are actually paired randomly but seem to go together, Chapter 5: Psychodynamic Theories Introversion—Extroversion  Jung suggested that extroversion is libido (psychic energy) turned outward, and introversion is libido turned inward  According to Jung, introversion and extroversion have associated cognitive differences. o Introverts tend to focus their attention inward on their own thoughts and perceptions. o Extroverts focus their attention outward and are constantly scanning the environment.  Jung was among the first theorists to tie personality differences to cultural differences. He had great interest in societies around the world, in part due to his desire to identify universal archetypes  Jung suggested that cultures in terms of whether they are xtroverted or introverted, He suggest that Western sociteies are extroverted while Eastern societies are introverted  He also posited other individual differences that reflect unique ways in which a person related to other people, the world, and information available in this world. He referred these as “psychological functions” and there are 4 functions altogether: sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. o He suggested that sensing and intuition were two irrational functions. He contrasted these with the two rational functions of thining and feeling  Jung indicated that extroversion and introversion combine with the four functions to produce eight psychological types: Extroverted Rational Types Extroverted Thinking Type  Objective thinking about stimuli in the environment; more common in men than women Extroverted Feeling Type  Feelings used as a guide to external life realities; more common among among women than men Extroverted Irrational Types Extroverted Sensation Type  Guided by sensation of concrete object  Enjoyment of knowing things through ones senses  Accepts that things will happen and whishes to enjoy their senation; more common in men Extroverted intuitive type  Focus on external objects, but to assess these rely on personal jdugements and intuitions  Most complications extroverted type intuits the possibilities of the external stimuli in the environment; may be highly creative as a result Introverted Rational Type Introverted Thinking Type  Influenced greatly by ideas, but ideas come from inward, subjective thought Chapter 5: Psychodynamic Theories inside the self  May have little bearing ot reality to external objects; inability to relate to students’ experiences Introverted Feeling Type  Deeply felt conscious images kept inside the self seem cold because of inability to focus on emotions of other people, but personal emotions are intense  More common in women; tendency to be silent about emotions and linked with melancholy Introverted Irrational Types Introverted sensation type  Relies on arbitrary associations between subjective sensations and objective stimuli  Unconscious focus on the sensations of the mythological world  Oriented not by sound judgement but by what happens Introverted Intuitive Type  Professing or proclaiming without reason  A person who is aloof from tangible reality  Most of all, represses the sensations of the external object The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  It seems that MBTI can be usedtp analyze just about anyone.  The measure’s validity is shown by research linking MBTI measures of judgement and intuition with social information processing  This research established that the MBTI predicted performance on a social cognitive task, above and beyond the effects of the traits of the 5 factor model  According to Paul, it has now translated into 16 languages Evaluation of Jung’s Contributions  Certain assumptions seem questionable. For instance, can part of the psyche really be inherited from ancestors?  Jung had a great impact on personality assessment by providing the theoretical basis for the MBTI.  He was the first to identify the distinction between introversion and extraversion as a personality type, and the dimension is now afforded a central place in the predominant five-factor trait model.  Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious and his analysis of archetypes across cultures; both contemporary and historical, helped promote the study of commonalities among people in addition to individual differences.  Jung also helped promote the study of cognitive factors in personality by suggesting that extroverts focus attention outward on the environment, while introverts focus attention inward. Chapter 5: Psychodynamic Theories The Neo-Freudians: Alfred Alder  Individual psychology: Alder’s movement; each person is unique and no previous theory adequately reflects this individuality  He accepted Freud’s notion that people are motivated by biological factors, but the biological factors of importance are not sexual urges, but instead are determined to overcome organ inferiority, which is explained below The inferiority Complex  Inferiority complex: condition that appears before a pro
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