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Chapter 1-6

Personality Psychology Textbook Notes Chapters 1-6.docx

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PSYC 2740
Melissa Williams

Personality Psychology Textbook Notes Chapter One: Introduction to Personality Psychology Trait-descriptive adjectives: Adjectives that can be used to describe characteristics of people Personality: the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the intrapsychic, physical and social environments - Personality is somewhat stable over time and somewhat consistent over situations - Our personalities are organized in the sense that they contain decision rules that govern which needs are activated, depending on the circumstances - Personality is an influential force that influences how we think, act and feel Psychological Traits: characteristics that describe ways in which people are different or similar to each other - Traits describe the average tendencies of a person - Useful because they describe people, help explain behaviour and help predict future behaviour The Four Questions: - How many traits are there? - How are the traits organized - What are the origin of traits - What are the correlations and consequences of traits Psychological Mechanisms: processes of personality - Three essential components: o Inputs o Decision rules o Outputs Person-environment interaction: - Perceptions: how we interpret an environment - Selection: the manner in which we choose situations to enter - Evocations: the reactions we produce in others - Manipulations: the ways in which we intentionally attempt to influence our environment Adaptation: accomplishing goals, coping, adjusting and dealing with the challenges and problems we face Effective environment: the small subset of features among the potentially infinite dimensions of the environment that our psychological mechanisms direct us to attend and respond to Intrapsychic environment: “within the mind” - Our memories, dreams, desires, fantasies and collection of private experiences that makes up an important part of our psychological reality Three Levels of Personality Analysis: 1. Universals – we are like all others (human nature) a. i.e. Language 2. Particulars – we are like some others (level of individual and group differences) a. i.e. – cultures, age, sex etc. 3. Uniqueness – we are like no others (individual uniqueness) Nomothetic – individual instances of general characteristics that are distributed in the population - Research typically involves statistical comparisons of individuals or groups o Applied to identify universal human characteristics and dimensions of individual or group differences Idiographic – single unique cases - Research typically focuses on a single subject, trying to observe general principles that manifest in a single life over time (case studies) Grand Theories of Personality - Address the human nature level of analysis (Sigmund Freud) Contemporary Research in Personality - Addresses the ways in which individuals and groups differ Six Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature: Domain of Knowledge: specialty area in which psychologists have focused on learning about some specific and limited aspects of human nature 1. Dispositional domain – traits the person is born with or develops a. Central goal is to identify and measure the most important ways in which individuals differ from one another b. Interested in the origin of individual differences & how they develop and are maintained 2. Biological domain – biological events a. Three areas of research i. Genetics ii. Psychophysiology (nervous system functioning) iii. Evolution 3. Intrapsychic domain – conflicts within the person’s own mind a. Mental mechanisms of personality i. Predominant theory is Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis 4. Cognitive-experiential domain – personal thoughts, feelings, desires, beliefs and subjective experiences a. Examples: the self, self-concept, self-esteem, emotions, experiences 5. Social & Cultural domain – social, cultural, and gendered positions in the world a. Personality is affected by the social and cultural context 6. Adjustment domain – the adjustments that the person must make to the challenges of life a. Personality plays a key role in how we cope, adapt, and adjust to the events in our lives The Role of Personality Theory: A Good Theory: - Provides a guide for researchers – directing them to important questions - Organizes known findings – coherence with other observations - Makes predictions Beliefs: based on faith, not on reliable facts and systematic observations Theories: tested by systematic observations that can be repeated by others and yield similar conclusions Standards for evaluating personality theories: 1. Comprehensiveness – does the theory do a good job of explaining all of the facts and observations within its domain (theories that explain more data are generally superior) 2. Heuristic value – does the theory provide a guide to important new discoveries? 3. Testability – does the theory render precise predictions that researchers can test empirically 4. Parsimony – does the theory provide the simplest possible explanation 5. Compatibility – is the theory compatible with other accepted theories - The field of personality psychology lacks a grand theory, which must unify all six domains Chapter Two: Personality Assessment, Measurement, and Research Design Sources of Personality Data Self-Report Data (S-data) – information revealed by the subject in question o Interviews, periodic reports, questionnaires (most common) Forms of S-data:  Unstructured: open-ended questions, fill-in-the-blanks  Example: Twenty Statements Test (TST): participants asked to finish 20 statements beginning with the words “I am…” o Psychologists require coding schemes to classify responses o The order of responses was thought to be significant o Well-adjusted married participants tend to mention their partner, their marriage and their family more often in their self-definitions than those in unadjusted marriages o No significant difference between US & Kenyan students in mentioning social group, but much larger percentage of traditional rural Kenyan citizens mentioned social group  Structured (more common): forced-choice, true or false  Adjective Check List (ACL): participants place a check beside adjectives they feel describe them  Likert Rating Scale: simple way for someone to express with numbers the degree (least to most) to which a particular trait describes them o Energetic 1 2 3 4 5 Pros:  Wealth of information about themselves that is inaccessible to anyone else  Feelings, emotions, desires, beliefs, and private experiences Cons:  People are not always honest, may lie to portray themselves favourably (social desirability bias)  People may lack accurate self-knowledge Experience Sampling: participants answer questions perhaps about mood or physical symptoms, every day for several weeks or longer o Participants usually contacted electronically one or more times a day at random intervals o Able to detect patterns of behaviour over time that may not be readily available using a 2questionnaire at just one point in time o *study of college students mood throughout the week showed positive mood on Friday & Saturday and negative mood on Tuesday & Wednesday  Introverts had more regular weekly mood cycles (more predictable) Observer-Report Data (O-data): gathering information about a subjects personality through observation Advantages of O-data:  Observers may have access to information not attainable through other sources (impression the subject makes on others, their social reputation, hierarchy and social interactions)  Multiple observers can be used to assess each individual  Allows researchers to evaluate the degree of agreement among observers (inter-rater reliability)  Reduces the biases of single observers  More valid & reliable assessment of personality Two Types of Observers: 1. Professional personality assessors who do not know the subject 2. Individuals who know the subject (friends, spouses, parents) Pros: a. These observers are able to observe the target’s natural behaviour b. Multiple social personalities can be assessed – using multiple observers who are close with the subject allows for information to be gathered on the subject’s personality as it varies from one setting to another Cons: Observers may be biased in their observations Methods of Observation: 1. Naturalistic Observation: observers witness and record events that occur in the normal course of the lives of their participants in their natural setting Pros: able to secure information in the realistic context of a person’s everyday life Cons:  unable to control the events and behavioural samples witnessed  hard to observe behaviour in rare situations 2. Artificial Observation: experimenters instruct participants to perform a task then observe how individuals behave in these constructed settings Pros: Able to control conditions and elicit the relevant behaviour Cons: unnatural environment may elicit a response that differs from the response in the natural environment Test Data (T-Data): participants are placed in a standardized testing situation to see if people react differently to an identical situation Pros:  Experiments can be designed to elicit behaviour that would be difficult to observe in everyday life  Allows researchers to control the context to eliminate extraneous sources of influence (confounding variables)  Enables experimenters to test specific hypotheses by controlling variables Cons:  Participants may try to guess what trait is being measured and alter their responses to create a specific impression of themselves  It is difficult to verify that the research participants define the testing situation in the same manner as the experimenter (the participant may believe the experiment is testing for a trait, which in return elicits a response that prevents an accurate response in regards to the actual trait being measured)  The researcher may inadvertently influence how the participants behave Examples:  The Assessment of Men: participant told they are being assessed on leadership skills and instructed to direct two “helpers” in building a bridge, though in reality the subject is being assessed on tolerance of frustration and performance under adversity. The “helpers” are in on the experiment and are intentionally being difficult in order to frustrate the subject  Edwin Megargee’s study on manifestations of dominance: the study included four conditions (pairs): 1. High-dominant (HD) man & low-dominant (LD) man 2. High dominant woman & low-dominant woman 3. High-dominant man & low-dominant woman 4. High-dominant woman & low-dominant man Each pair was presented with a task that would require a “leader” and a “follower” and instructed that the participants must decide themselves who would assume each role. Findings:  75 % of HD men & 70 % of HD women took leader role when paired with LD of same-sex  90% of HD men took leader role when paired with LD women  Only 20% of HD women took leader role when paired with LD men o Women appointed men the leader demonstrating that women express their dominance in a different manner than men in mixed-sex conditions Mechanical Recording Devices (form of T-data): Actometer: a watch that records the activity level  Used to assess personality differences in activity or energy level  Fluctuations in mood, physiology and setting limit any single sample of activity level, but levels recorded over many days can provide a general idea  Study showed a strong correlation between the actometer measures and observer-based measures of activity level  Activity levels appears to be moderately stable over time Pros:  Provide a means of assessing personality that is not hampered by the biases that are possible with a human observer  Measures can be obtained in a naturalistic setting Cons:  Relatively few personality traits can be measured by mechanical devices (introversion) Physiological Data (T-data): provides information about a person’s level of arousal, reactivity to various stimuli and the speed at which a person takes in new information o Measure sympathetic nervous system activity, blood pressure, heart rate, muscle contractions and brain waves o Example:  Study measuring “startle reflex” (blinking eyes, lowering chin, inhaling suddenly) in psychopaths to assess fear response. Study found that whereas most people who are already in an anxious state as a result of being shown frightening pictures exhibit the “startle reflex” more readily, psychopaths do not Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): used to identify the areas of the brain activated when performing certain tasks, by measuring the amount of oxygen (by detecting the iron carried with oxygen) brought to particular places in the brain by increased blood flow to that area Pros: it is difficult for participants to fake responses Cons: fMRI must compare the “activated state” with the resting state, though it is hard to determine what the “resting state” is and the differences between this “resting state” between people Projective Techniques (T-data): participant is given standard ambiguous stimulus and asked what they see o Example:  Inkblot  Hand technique: person is given a picture of hands and is asked to make up a story about what the hands just did and what they are going to do next o Advocates argue these are useful for uncovering wishes, desires, fantasies and conflicts that the participant may be unaware of o Critics question their validity and reliability as accurate measures of personality Life-Outcome Data (L-Data): information that can be collected from the events, activities and outcomes in a person’s life that are available to public scrutiny o Examples: marriage records, club memberships, criminal record, academic records etc. o S-Data & O-Data can often predict future L-Data  ill-tempered boys later demonstrated more unemployment and less satisfactory marriages  ill-tempered girls later demonstrated high frequency of marrying men of lower occupational status than themselves, and a higher frequency of divorce Issues in Personality Assessment: Links among Various Data Sources Ozer & Buss (1991): examined the relationships between self-report and spouse-report for eight dimensions of personality.  Found that the degree of agreement varied depending on the particular trait and on the observability of the trait  Extraversion showed moderate agreement  “calculating” showed low agreement Advantages of multiple measures:  Using multiple measures allows researchers to average out idiosyncrasies and focus on the key variable being studied - Lack of agreement does not necessarily indicate an error of measurement (although it might) but may instead signify that observers are basing their conclusions of different behavioural samples The Fallibility of Personality Measurement: Triangulation: examining results that transcend data sources (findings that occur in two or more data sources have more credibility) Evaluation of Personality Measures: Reliability: the degree to which an obtained measure represents the true level of the trait being measured (the accuracy of the measure) Repeated measurement: repeating the measurement over time to determine if the two tests are highly correlated (similar)  Similar scores are said to have high test-retest reliability Internal consistency reliability: when the items within a test correlate well with each other (the reliability of the test itself, rather than the reliability of the score obtained) Inter-rater reliability: when the measurements obtain from multiple observers correlate with each other the measure is said to have high inter-rater reliability (only applicable in the use of observer based personality measures; O-Data) Response Sets (noncontent responding): the tendency of some people to respond to the questions on a basis that is unrelated to the question content o Reduce measurement reliability Example: o Acquiescence: simply agree with the questionnaire items regardless of the content of those items  Can be counteracted by reverse-scoring some of the questionnaire items  Example: an extroversion item that states “I frequently prefer to be alone” o Extreme responding: the tendency to give endpoint responses (strongly agree/disagree) while avoiding the middle part of response scales o Social Desirability: the tendency to answer items in such a way as to come across as socially attractive or likable rather than answer honestly  although researchers do not consider this to be the same as lying or faking because the subject may be unaware of the effect of social desirability on their responses, some believe that social desirability introduces inaccuracies into test scores and should be eliminated or controlled  Other researchers believe that social desirability is a trait in itself and is correlated with other positive traits (happiness, adjustment) studies have shown that possessing positive self- enhancing illusions about the self and the world can promote psychological adjustment and mental health Dealing with social desirability  researchers can use social desirability measures to adjust the subjects scores on other questionnaires  researchers can construct a questionnaire using items that have been found not to correlate with social desirability  Forced-choice questionnaire: subjects are forced to choose between a pair of statements that are equivalently socially desirable (or undesirable) Impression Management: tendency to present oneself favorably Self-Deceptive Enhancement: positive illusions Validity: the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure Face validity: whether the test, on the surface, appears to measure what it is supposed to measure Predictive validity (criterion validity): whether the test predicts criteria external to the test (example: a test for sensation-seeking predicted gambling behaviours) Convergent validity: whether a test correlates with other measures (s-data, o- data) that it should correlate with Discriminant validity: refers to what a measure should not correlate with Construct validity: a test that measures what it claims to measure, correlates with what it is supposed to correlate with, and does not correlate with what it is not supposed to correlate with (whether actual measures can claim to be valid ways of assessing the construct) – incorporates all other validities Generalizability: the degree to which the measure retains its validity across various contexts (age groups, genders, cultures, ethnic groups) Different conditions: whether a scale designed to measure one trait will predict the expression of the trait across a variety of different conditions Research Designs in Personality Experimental Methods: typically used to determine causality (whether one variable influences another variable Variable: a quality that can take different values for different people (height)  In the experimental group one variable is manipulated (the independent variable) and the resulting effect on the other variable (the dependent variable) is measured, then compared to the dependent variable of another group (control group) in which the independent variable was not manipulated  If there is a significant difference between the dependent variable of the two groups, it is reasonable to conclude that the independent variable influenced the dependent variable Experimental group: the group receiving manipulation of independent variable Control group: the group that does not receive manipulation of the independent variable Random assignment: participants are randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group to ensure that each condition is equivalent to each other at the beginning of the study (occurs in between- participant designs; comparing two groups; control and experimental) Counterbalancing: the participants are split and the order of the conditions are counterbalanced (half receiving the drug first and placebo second, the other half the reverse)  occurs in within-participant designs; comparing the same group before and after manipulation of the independent variable  used to prevent order effects: confounding variables that are present as a result of the sequence of being exposed to one condition first Significance: to determine whether the difference is significant five values must be determined: 1. sample size: the number of people included in the experiment 2. mean: the average value dependent variable 3. standard deviation: a measure of variability within each condition (the difference in the dependent variable that is due to factors other than the manipulation of the independent variable) 4. t-test: a display that shows the probability of measuring a specific value for the dependent variable 5. p-value: a value that serves the purpose of determining whether the difference between the dependent variable in the two conditions is a result of chance or is a statistically significant difference to indicate influence by the independent variable Correlational Studies: a statistical procedure is used for determining whether or not there is a relationship between two variables, without manipulation of either variable Pros: allow us to identify relationships among variables as they occur naturally Cons: a correlation does not indicate causality because: Directionality problem: if A and B are correlated, we do not know if A is the cause of B, or if B is the cause of A Third Variable problem: two variables might be correlated because a third, unknown variable is causing both (amount of ice cream sold is correlated with the number of people that drown on that day, can we infer that eating ice cream causes drowning? No, there is a third variable at play (hot weather) Correlation coefficient: a value that indicates both the magnitude and direction between two variables  can range from (+1.00) through (0.00) to (-1.00)  magnitude (strength of correlation) increases as the value of the coefficient increases (0.1 < 0.5 < 1.0)  negative directionality (-): indicates that as one variable increases the other decreases (displayed graphically as a downward sloping line)  positive directionality (+): indicates that as one variable increases the other increases as well (displayed graphically as an upward sloping line) Case Study method: examination of the life of one person in-depth Gordon Allport: strongest advocate of case study method  founders of the field of modern personality psychology Pros:  ideal for generating hypotheses that can be tested using correlational or experimental methods  researchers can gather information about personality in greater detail than if the study included a larger number of people  provides in-depth information of particularly outstanding or unusual people  useful in studying rare phenomena Cons:  findings based on one individual cannot be generalized to other people  cannot establish causality, nor identify patterns of co-variation across individuals Chapter Three: Traits & Trait Taxonomies Traits (dispositions): reasonably stable over time and somewhat consistent over situations What is a Trait? Internal Causal Properties: view that sees traits as internal properties of a person that cause their behaviour o traits (internal needs, drives, desires) are presumed to exist, even in the absence of observable expressions Descriptive Summaries: view that defines traits simply as descriptive summaries of attributes of persons; makes no assumptions about internality or causality (describes expressed behavior) Act Frequency Approach (illustration of descriptive summaries): starts with the notion that traits are categories of acts (dominance is an example of a trait category with hundreds of acts as members of the category) Trait: a descriptive summary of the general trend in a person’s behaviour – a dominant person is someone who performs a large number of dominant acts Key Elements: 1. Act Nomination: a procedure designed to identify which acts belong in which trait categories 2. Prototypicality judgment: identifying which acts are most central to, or prototypical of, each trait category 3. Recording of Act Performance: securing information on the actual performance of individuals in their daily lives Criticisms:  The act frequency approach does not specify how much context should be included in the description of a trait-relevant act  There are always other factors surrounding an action that can change which category of trait it may fall under  It fails to account for traits that are not directly observable resulting from failures to act & covert acts Merits:  Helpful in making explicit the behavioural phenomena to which most trait terms refer  Helpful in identifying behavioural regularities  Useful in identifying cultural similarities and differences in the behavioural manifestation of traits  Research has demonstrated this approach can be used to predict important outcomes in everyday life (job success, salary etc) *study examined the relationship between self-reported act performance and observer reports of individual’s actual behaviour  Acts that reflect traits of extraversion and conscientiousness tended to show high levels of self-observer agreement  Acts that reflect trait of agreeableness tended to show lower levels of self-observer agreement  The more observable the actions the higher the agreement between self-report and observer report Identification of the Most Important Traits Lexical Approach Lexical hypothesis: all important individual differences have become encoded within the natural language (people have invented words to describe their differences)  The differences among people that have been important in navigating the social environment have been noticed, talked about and have become part of the natural language Two Criteria for identifying important traits: Synonym frequency: the more important the attribute the more synonyms and subtly distinctive aspects of the attribute will be found within any one language Cross-cultural universality: the more important is an individual difference in human transactions, the more languages will have a term for it Pros: provides a good starting point for identifying important individual differences Cons: one problem with the lexical strategy concerns the fact that personality is conveyed through different parts of speech (adjectives, nouns and adverbs) Statistical Approach: strives to identify the major dimensions of the personality map by assembling a large and diverse pool of personality-relevant adjectives, items or sentences and then collecting data from a large sample of people using the statistical procedure Factor analysis: identifies groups of items that covary (go together) but tend not to covary with other groups of items Pros:  it provides a means for determining which personality variables have some common property  useful in reducing the large array of diverse personality traits into smaller and more useful sets of underlying factors Factor loadings: indexes of how much of the variation in an item is explained by the factor (indicates the degree to which the item correlates (loads on) with the underlying factor  ex. Extraversion factor – high loadings on humorous, amusing, popular Theoretical Approach: starts with a theory that determines which variables are important and then attempts to test this theory Pros: its strengths coincide with the strengths of the theory Cons: its weaknesses coincide with the weaknesses of the theory Theory of sociosexual orientation: according to this theory, men and women will pursue one or two alternative sexual relationship strategies 1. seeking a single commited relationship characterized by monogamy and tremendous investment in children 2. characterized by a greater degree of promiscuity, more partner switching and less investment in children - this theory then uses a self-report questionnaire to measure sociosexual orientation Taxonomies of Personality: Eysenck’s Hierarchical Model of Personality - strongly rooted in biology - describes three broad traits that are at the top of a hierarchy Three main highly heritable traits: 1. extraversion-introversion > (sociable, lively, active, assertive, sensation-seeking) a. Extraverts  typically like parties, have many friends and seem to require having people around them to talk to  display a carefree and easy manner  tend to have a high activity level b. Introverts  Like to spend more time alone  Prefer quiet time and pursuits such as reading  Sometimes seen as aloof and distant  Often have a small number of intimate friends  Tend to be more serious and prefer a more moderate pace  Tend to be well-organized, prefer routine and predictability 2. neuroticism-emotional stability > ( anxious, depressed, guilt feelings, low self-esteem, tense) a. high neuroticism: i. frequently anxious and depressed and worry a lot ii. have trouble sleeping and experience psychosomatic symptoms iii. over-reactive to negative emotions iv. experience a greater degree of emotional arousal v. has more trouble returning to normal state after an emotionally arousing event vi. stay angry longer after a transgression and less likely to forgive some who they perceive has violated them b. low neuroticism: i. emotionally stable, even-tempered, calm, slower to react to stressful events and returns to normal state quickly after an upsetting event 3. psychoticism > (aggressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal, impulsive) a. high psychoticism: i. a solitary individual lacking empathy ii. men tend to score twice as high as women on psychoticism iii. history of cruelty to animals iv. insensitivity to the pain and suffering of others v. physically and verbally aggressive vi. likes to make fools of other people and often has antisocial tendencies vii. tend to show a strong preference for violent films, unpleasant paintings, endorse promiscuous and hostile sexual attitudes, pretend to be in love, force others in to sexual acts Hierarchical Structure of Eysenck’s System o Each of the three super-traits at the top o Narrower traits at the second level o Habitual acts: a third level beneath the narrower traits  Ex. “talking on the phone” is a habitual act that is subsumed by sociable o Specific acts: the very lowest level in the hierarchy Biological Underpinnings Heritability: key criterion for a basic dimension of personality is that it has reasonably high heritability Identifiable physiological substrate: the criterion that basic personality traits should have an identifiable property in the physiological activity of the brain and central nervous system  Ex. Extraversion linked with central nervous system arousal & introversion is linked with more autonomic arousal)  Neuroticism linked with the degree of changeability of the autonomic nervous system  High psychoticism linked to high testosterone levels and low levels of MAO (neurotransmitter inhibitor) Cons: many other traits also show moderate heritability other than the main three Cattell’s Taxonomy: The 16 Personality Factor System - Cattell believed that true factors of personality should be found across different types of data (S-data, T-data etc) Pros: a strong empirical strategy for identifying the basic dimensions of personality and stimulated and shaped the entire traits approach to personality Cons: many argue that a smaller number of factors capture the more important ways in which individuals differ 16 Personality Factor Scales 1. Factor A: interpersonal warmth: Warm-hearted, personable, easy to get along with, likes being with other people, likes helping others, adapts well to the needs of others rather than has others adapt to his or her needs, this is similar to Eysenck's extraversion 2. Factor B : intelligence: Intellectual functioning or efficiency of processing information 3. Factor C: emotional stability: A high level of emotional resources with which to meet the challenges of daily life, able to work toward goals, not easily distracted, good emotional control, able to "roll with the punches," tolerates stress well, this is similar to Eysenck's neuroticism factor (reverse scored) 4. Factor E: dominance: Self-assertive, aggressive, competitive, forceful and direct in relations with others, likes to put own ideas into practice and have things own way, occupational groups scoring high include athletes and judges, low-scoring groups include janitors, farmers. and cooks 5. Factor F: impulsivity: Happy-go-lucky, lively, enthusiastic, enjoys parties, likes to travel, prefers |obs with variety and change, occupational groups scoring high include airline attendants and salespersons, adults scoring high on impulsivity tend to leave home at an earlier age and to move more often during their adult lives 6. Factor G: conformity: Persistent, respectful of authority, rigid, conforming, follows group standards, likes rules and order, dislikes novelty and surprises, military cadets score above average, along with airport traffic controllers, university professors, however, tend to be below average on conformity 7. Factor H: boldness Likes being the center of attention, adventurous, socially bold, outgoing, confident, able to move easily into new social groups, not socially anxious, has no problems with stage fright 8. Factor I: sensitivity: Artistic, insecure, dependent, overprotected, prefers reason to force in getting things done, high scorers are found among groups of employment counsellors, artists, and musicians, whereas low scorers are found among engineers 9. Factor L: suspiciousness: Suspecting, jealous, dogmatic, critical, irritable, holds grudges, worries much about what others think of him or her, tends to be critical of others, accountants score high on this dimension 10. Factor M: imagination: Sometimes called the "absent-minded professor" factor, unconventional, impractical, unconcerned about everyday matters, forgets trivial things, not usually interested in mechanical activities, high-scoring groups include artists and research scientists, high scorers are more creative than low scorers but also tend to have more automobile accidents 11. Factor N: shrewdness: Polite, diplomatic, reserved, good at managing the impression made on others, socially poised and sophisticated, good control of his or her own behavior high scorers may appear "stiff" and constrained in their social relations. 12. Factor O: insecurity: Tends to worry, feels guilty, moody, has frequent episodes of depression, often feels dejected, sensitive to criticism from others becomes upset easily, anxious, often lonely, self-deprecating self-reproaching, extremely low scorers come across as smug, self-satisfied and overly self-confident, low-scoring persons may not feel bound by the standards of society and may not operate according to accepted social conventions, (i e, may be somewhat antisocial) 13. Factor Q1: radicalism: Liberal attitudes, innovative, analytic, feels that society should throw out traditions, prefers to break with established ways of doing things, high scorers tend to be effective problem solvers in group decision-making studies, however, high scorers, because they are critical and verbally aggressive, are not well liked as leaders 14. Factor Q2: self-sufficiency: Prefers to be alone, dislikes being on committees 01 involved in group work, shuns support from others, social workers tend to be below average on this dimension, accountants and statisticians tend to be high, with Antarctic explorers among the highest groups ever tested on self-sufficiency 15. Factor Q3: self-discipline: Prefers to be organized, think before talking or acting, is neat, does not like to leave anything to chance, high-scoring persons have strong control over then actions and emotions, airline pilots score high on this dimension 16. Factor Q4: tension: Anxious, frustrated, takes a long time calming down after being upset, irritated by small things, gets angry easily, has trouble sleeping Circumplex (Circle) Taxonomies of Personality Jerry Wiggins: - began with the lexical assumption (important traits are encoded within the natural language) - went further by arguing that trait terms specify different kinds of ways in which individuals differ o interpersonal traits: individual differences between what people do to and with each other o temperament traits: (nervous, gloomy, sluggish, excitable) o character traits: (moral, principled, dishonest) o material traits: (miserly, stingy) o attitude traits: (pious, spiritual) o mental traits: (clever, logical, perceptive) o physical traits: (healthy, tough) - interpersonal events: dyadic interactions that have relatively clear-cut social (status) and emotional (love) consequences for both participants o the two resources that define social exchange are love and status (these are the two major axis in the circumplex model) Advantages of Wiggins Circumplex model: o provides an explicit definition of interpersonal behavior o the circumplex specifies the relationships between each trait and every other trait within the model  Three types of relationships:  Adjacency: how close the traits are to each other in the circumplex (neighboring variables are positively correlated)  Bipolarity: traits that are bipolar are located at opposite sides of the circle and are negatively correlated  Orthogonality: traits that are perpendicular to each other are entirely unrelated to each other (zero correlation) o The model alerts investigators to gaps in investigations of interpersonal behaviour Disadvantages: o The interpersonal map is limited to two dimensions, other traits not captured by these two dimensions are also of importance Five-Factor Model (aka the Big Five aka the High Five): 1. Extraversion or surgency 2. Agreeableness 3. Conscientiousness 4. Emotional stability 5. Openness-intellect (sometimes called “culture”) Empirical Evidence for the Model: - The model has proven replicable in studies, replicated every decade for the past half-century and replicated in different languages and in different item formats - It is measured based on two methods: 1. self-ratings of single-word trait adjectives (Lewis R. Goldberg) 2. self-ratings of sentence items (NEO-PI-R = the neuroticism- extraversion-openness-personality inventory-revised) Identity of the Fifth Factor: - there is some disagreement about the content, naming and replicability of the fifth factor Empirical Correlates of the Five Factors Extraversion: Social attention: the cardinal feature of extraversion Extraverts tend to:  assume leadership positions  likely be more bold than introverts with women they don’t know  be happier  be more involved and enjoy their work  show more commitment to their work organization  more cooperative  get into more car accidents Agreeablesness-aggressiveness: Those high on agreeableness tend to:  use negotiation to resolve conflicts  withdraw fro
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