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Chapter 6

PSYC 2740 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Hip Fracture, Neuroglia, Primitive Reflexes

3 pages62 viewsFall 2013

Course Code
PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

of 3
Chap 6 summary Psyc *2450*
*story on Helen Keller
3-4m = teething (1yr=6-8 teeth, 2.5 yr. = appx. 20 teeth)
6m = 20/20, sit without support
15m= build tower of blocks
Growth and Nutrition
Faster period of growth (especially first few months)
3-4m = teething (1yr=6-8 teeth, 2.5 yr. = appx 20 teeth)
Physical growth follows cephocaudal (head to tail) and proximodal (inner to outer)
illnesses prevented or minimized by breastfeeding(baby) = diarrhea,
respiratory infections, oititis media (middle ear infection), staphylococcal,
bacteria and UTIs, and can reduce postneonatal death (28 d 1y)
-benefits for mom = less postpartum bleeding, quicker physical recovery,
earlier return to previous weight, less risk of breast cancer n ovarian cancer,
less risk of osteoporosis n hip fractures
- can be dangerous if mother has AIDS(can be transmitted thru milk), any
other infectious illnesses, taking drugs or alcohol
The Brain
CNS central nervous system brain and spinal cord
Brain growth spurts periods of rapid growth and development
PET positron emission tomography
Lateralization tendency of each of the brains hemispheres to have specialized
functions (left hem/right)
Left hemisphere language and logical thinking
Right hemisphere visual and spatial functions (map reading and drawing)
Brain is composed of neurons and glial cells
Neurons nerve cells (send receive info)
Glial cells protect and support
myelination processes of coating neurons with a fatty substances (myelin) that
enables faster communication between cells
reflex behavior automatic, involuntary, innate responses to stimulation
*once nerves are myelinated, shift to voluntary behavior, so you can evaluate a
baby’s neurological dvlpmt by seeing if certain reflexes are present or absent
Integration process of neurons coordinate the activities of muscle groups
Differentiation process of neurons acquiring specialized structure and function
Reflex behavior automatic, involuntary, innate responses to stimulation
See pg. 143 for list for list of reflexes (ex rooting reflex 0 9m = sucking)
Plasticity moulding of the brain through experience
Early sensory
Touch first sense to develop
- pain emerges by 3rd trimester (baby can feel pain)
Smell and taste also develop in womb
Hearing functional from birth
Sight least developed at birth
Motor devlpment
Systems of actions increasing complex combinations of skills, permit wider and or
more precise range of mvmt and more control of environment
Denver development screening test (1m-6y) screening test to determine normal
Gross motor skills physical skills that involve the large muscles
Fine motor skills physical skills that involve that small muscles and hand-eye
Head control can keep neck erect solo by 4m
Hand control 7-11 m can pick up a pea, 15 m can build tower of blocks and by 3y
can trace a circle
Locomotion 11.5 m start to take first steps, ~1 y walking, ~2 y = run and jump)
Motor development and perception
Haptic perception handling objects to learn
Infant mortality rate proportion of babies born alive who die within the first year
after birth
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome sudden and unexplained death of an
apparently healthy infant
SBS shaken baby syndrome story
-speculation some immunizations can lead to autism and other neurodevelopmental

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