Textbook Notes (367,753)
Canada (161,369)
Psychology (3,330)
PSYC 2740 (174)
Chapter 7

Developmental Psych Chapter 7

9 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter 7: Cognitive Development During the First Three Years • Darwin kept a diary of observations of his newborn son o These notes called scientific attention to the developmental nature of how infants behave o Interaction with objects helps develop new cognitive skills o Gaining knowledge through the integration of new experiences with existing patterns of behaviour Studying Cognitive Development: Six Approaches 1. Behaviourist approach: studies the basic mechanics of learning; how behaviour changes in response to experience 2. Psychometric approach: aims to measure individual differences in quantity of intelligence by using intelligence tests; higher score = higher intelligence 3. Piagetian approach: examines changes or stages in the quality of cognitive functioning; how the mind structures activities and adapts to the environment 4. Information-processing approach: focuses on processes involved in perception, learning, memory, and problem solving; what children do with information from when they’re introduced to it to when they use it 5. Cognitive neuroscience approach: seeks to identify what brain structures are involved in specific aspects of cognition 6. Social-contextual approach: looks at the effects of environmental aspects of the learning process, like parents and caregivers Behaviourist Approach: Basic Mechanics of Learning • Classical conditioning: learning based on associating a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular response with another stimulus that ordinarily does elicit the response o Ex. Baby sees a camera and blinks because she’s learned to associate the camera with the bright light of the flash o Learner is passive, absorbing and automatically reacting to stimuli • Operant conditioning: learning based on reinforcement or punishment o Ex. Baby learns that smiling brings loving attention • Inability to remember early events is called infantile amnesia o Infancy is a time of change so retention of specific experiences isn’t likely to be useful for long Psychometric Approach: Developmental and Intelligence Testing • Intelligent behaviour: behaviour that’s goal-oriented and adaptive to circumstance and conditions of life o Intelligence enables people to acquire, remember, and use knowledge, to understand concepts and relationships, and to solve problems o American tests: Stanford-Binet and WPPSI-III  Used in Canada but do not reflect the composition of the Canadian population o IQ (intelligence quotient) tests: seek to measure intelligence by comparing a test- taker’s performance with standardized norms • Impossible to measure infants’ intelligence, but can measure their cognitive development o Assess what they can do o If they can’t hold a rattle, it’s difficult to assess whether they don’t know how, don’t feel like it, don’t realize what’s expected of them, or if they’ve just lost interest o Bayley Scales of Infant Development: a standardized test of infants’ mental and motor development  Ages 1 month to 3½ years  Five domains: • Cognitive • Language • Motor • Social-emotional • Adaptive behaviour  Separate scores (developmental quotients aka DQs) are calculated for each scale • Useful for early detection of emotional disturbances, learning problems, and sensory, neurological, and environmental deficits, and in helping parents and professionals plan for a child’s needs • Intelligence was once thought to be fixed at birth, but now we know it’s influenced by both inheritance and experience o Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME): instrument to measure the influence of the home environment on children’s cognitive growth  Trained observers rate the primary caregiver ‘s intellectual stimulation and observed support on a yes-or-no checklist  Parental responsiveness is an important factor • Praising, affection (more of each has been correlated with higher IQs)  Also assesses number of books in the home, the presence of playthings that encourage concept development, and involvement of parents in children’s play  Correlational findings can’t be used to predict causation of higher intelligence  There could still be a genetic component o Other research has identified seven other aspects of early home environment that enable cognitive and psychosocial development and help prepare children for school:  Encouraging exploration of the environment  Mentoring in basic cognitive and social skills  Celebrating developmental advances  Guidance in practicing and extending skills  Protection from inappropriate disapproval, teasing, and punishment  Communicating richly and responsively  Guiding and limiting behaviour • Consistent presence of all seven conditions early in life are causally linked to many areas of brain functioning and cognitive development • Children with limited learning opportunities and limited parental expectations are likely to start kindergarten at least two years behind their peers and unlikely to catch up without special help o Early intervention: systematic process of providing services to help families meet young children’s developmental needs o Early educational intervention can boost cognitive development o Most effective early interventions are those that:  Start early and continue throughout the preschool years  Are highly time-intensive  Provide direct educational experiences, not just parental training  Take a comprehensive approach, including health, family counseling, and social services  Are tailored to individual needs and differences Piagetian Approach: The Sensorimotor Stage • Sensorimotor stage: first stage of cognitive development, during which infants learn through senses and motor activity o Consists of six substages that flow from one to another as a baby’s schemes (organized patterns of behaviour) become more elaborate o Circular reactions: processes by which an infant learns to reproduce desired occurrences originally discovered by chance  Substage 1: The use of reflexes • Birth - 1 month • Infants are born with inherited reflexes, and it is through the reflexes that the infant begins to make meaning and build understanding. Reflexes are highly stereotyped automatic behaviors that occur in response to specific stimuli. Reflexes include sucking and grasping, as well as eye movements, vocalization, and orientation to sound. o Ex. grasping finger, sucking any object that comes in contact with the mouth.  Substage 2: primary circular reactions • 1 month - 4 months • Circular reactions are repetitive behaviors. Primary circular reactions are behaviors that occur unexpectedly from reflexes. A reflex will engage the child is some form of behavior. If the child finds that behavior pleasurable, the child will repeat the behavior. o ex. Sucking a thumb. The child does not intentionally coordinate putting his thumb in his mouth and sucking. By chance, when a child's hand comes in contact with the mouth sucking will occur. Getting a pleasurable sensation from this behavior, the child will attempt to recreate the behavior  Substage 3: Secondary circular reactions • 4 months - 8 months • Secondary reactions, unlike primary circular reactions, are not based on reflexes; therefore, secondary circular reactions are not contained within the body. However, similar to primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions occur from an unintentional occurrence, but the occurrence involves the child interacting with the external environment. o ex. A child is moving about in a playpen and happens to hit the mobile overhead. The mobile spins and catches the baby's attention. Once the mobile stops spinning, if the child enjoyed the experience, the child will move his arms and legs again to try and hit to mobile. The child wants to repeat the behavior.  Substage 4: Coordination of secondary circular reactions • 8 months - 12 months • Before this stage, everything occurred by chance. Now, the child is starting to understand that one circular reaction can be used to get another circular reaction. Behaviors that the child displays are now for a reason. At this stage, the child begins to gain a sense of cause and effect. Also, a major event occurs during this stage: object permanence. Before now, children do not understand that an object out-of-sight continues to exist. Children acquiring a knowledge base of object permanence love to play peek-a-boo. o ex. A child wants the rattle but a blanket is in the way. The child will move the blanket to get the rattle.  Substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions • 12 months - 18 months • At this stage, an action occurs deliberately. The child displays a behavior purposely and continues the action because it is pleasurable. What separates this stage from the previous is that the action is repeated with some variation. o ex. A child beats on a pot with a wooden spoon. Then, the child beats on the floor with the wooden spoon. Next, the child beats on the refrigerator with a wooden spoon.  Substage 6: Coordination of tertiary circular reactions • 18 months - 24 months • It is in this last stage that children internalize behaviors and began to build mental symbols! This stage is when children are able to participate in pretend play. o ex. A child is pretending to cook and needs to "mix the ingredients" in a bowl. However, the child does not have a spoon. The child will either pretend to use a spoon, or the child will use an object, similar to a spoon, in its place. o Invisible imitation: imitation with parts of one’s body that one cannot see (ex. Mouth) o Visible imitation: imitation with parts of one’s body that one can see (ex. Hands or feet) o Deferred imitation: Piaget’s term for reproduction of an observed behaviour after the passage of time by calling up a symbol for it o Elicited imitation: research method in which infants or toddlers are induced to imitate a specific series of actions they have seen but not necessarily done before  More reliable during the second year of life o Four factors seem to determine children’s long-term recall:  The number of times a sequence of events has been experienced  Whether the child actively participates of merely observes  Whether the c
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2740

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.