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Chapter 8

Developmental Psych Chapter 8

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

C HAPTER 8 P SYCHOSOCIAL D EVELOPMENT D URING THE F IRST T HREE Y EARS PAGES 194-225 DEFINITIONSFOR GUIDEPOST 1): Emotions: subjective reactions to experience that are associated with physiological and behavioural changes (196) Self-conscious emotions: Emotions, such as embarrassment, empathy, and envy, that depend on self-awareness (198) Self-awareness: Realization that one’s existence and functioning are separate from those of other people and things (198) Self- evaluative emotions: Emotions, such as pride, shame, and guilt that depend on both self- awareness and knowledge of socially accepted standards of behavior (199) Empathy: Ability to put oneself in another person’s place and feel what the other person feels (199) Social cognition: Ability to understand that other people have mental states and to gauge their feelings and intentions (199) Egocentrism: Piaget’s term for inability to consider another person’s point of view; a characteristic of young children’s thought (199) DEFINITIONSFOR GUIDEPOST 2): Temperament: Characteristic disposition, or style of approaching and reacting to situations (200) “easy” children: Children with a generally happy temperament, regular biological rhythms, and a readiness to accept new experiences (200) “difficult” children: Children with irritable temperament, irregular biological rhythms, and intense emotional responses (201) “slow-to-warm-up” children: Children whose temperament is generally mild but who are hesitant about accepting new experiences (201) Goodness of fit: Appropriateness of environmental demands and constraints to a child’s temperament (202) D EFINITIONS (FOR G UIDEPOST 3): Basic trust versus basic mistrust: Erikson’s first crisis in psychosocial development, in which infants develop a sense of the reliability of people and objects in their world (203) Attachment: Reciprocal, enduring tie between two people – especially between infant and caregiver – each of whom contributes to the quality of the relationship (204) Strange situation: Laboratory technique used to study attachment (204) Secure attachment: Pattern in which an infant cries or protests when the primary caregiver leaves and actively seeks out the caregiver upon his or her return (205) Avoidant attachment: Pattern in which an infant rarely cries when separated from the primary caregiver and avoids contact upon his or her return (205) Ambivalent (resistant) attachment: Pattern in which an infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is extremely upset during his or her absence, and both seeks and resists contact on his or her return (205) Disorganized-disoriented attachment: Pattern in which an infant, after being separated from the primary caregiver, shows contradictory behaviors upon his or her return (205) Stranger anxiety: Wariness of strange people and places, shown by some infants during the second half of the first year (207) Separation anxiety: Distress shown by someone, typically an infant, when a familiar caregiver leaves (207) Mutual regulation: Process by which infant and caregiver communicate emotional states to each other and respond appropriately (209) “still-face” paradigm: Research method used to measure mutual regulation in infants 2 to 9 months old (209) Social referencing: Understanding an ambiguous situation by seeking out another person’s perception on it (211) D EFINITIONS (FOR G UIDEPOST 4): Self-concept: Sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one’s abilities and traits (212) Autonomy versus shame and doubt: Erikson’s second crisis in psychosocial development, in which children achieve a balance between self-determination and control by others (212) Socialization: Development of habits, skills, values, and motives shared by responsible, productive members of society (214) Internalization: During socialization, process by which children accept societal standards of conduct as their own (214) Self-regulation: A person’s independent control of behaviour to conform to understood social expectations (215) Conscience: Internal standards of behaviour, which usually control one’s conduct and produce emotional discomfort when violated (215) Committed compliance: Kochanska’s term for wholehearted obedience to a parent’s orders without reminders or lapses (215) Situational compliance: Kochanska’s term for obedience to parent’s orders only in the presence of prompting or other signs of ongoing parental control (215) Receptive cooperation: Kochanska’s term for eager willingness to cooperate harmoniously with a parent in daily interactions, including routines, chores, hygiene, and play (216) D EFINITIONS FOR G UIDEPOST 5): Gender: significance of being male or female (216) Gender-typing: Socialization process by which children learn appropriate gender roles (217) M ARY CATHERINE B ATESON – A NTHROPOLOGIST  Mead and Bateson placed importance on trust when raising Cathy Bateson  Margaret Mead tried to respond quickly to her daughter’s needs  They never left Cathy in a strange place with a strange person  Mead tried to avoid overprotectiveness  Mead put into practice the beliefs she had developed about child rearing  This chapter is about the shift from the dependence of infancy to the independence of childhood F OUNDATIONS OF P SYCHOSOCIAL D EVELOPMENT  While babies share common patterns of development, they also show distinct personalities, which reflect both inborn and environmental influences  From infancy on, personality development is intertwined with social relationships (Table 8-1) Table 8-1 Highlights of infants’ and toddlers’ psychosocial development, Birth to 36 Months Approximate Age, Months Characteristics 0-3 Infants are open to stimulation, begin to show interest and curiosity, and they smile readily at people 3-6 Infants can anticipate what is about to happen and experience disappointment when it does not. They show this by becoming angry or acting warily. They smile, coo, and laugh often. This is a time of social awakening and early reciprocal exchanges between the baby and the caregiver 6-9 Infants play “social games” and try to get responses from people. They “talk” to, touch, and cajole other babies to get them to respond. Express more emotions such as joy, fear, anger, and surprise 9-12 Infants are intensely preoccupied with their principle caregiver, may become afraid of strangers, and act subdued in new situations. By 1 year, they communicate emotions more clearly, showing moods, ambivalence, and gradations of feeling 12-18 Toddlers explore their environment, using the people they are most attached to as a secure base. As they master the environment, they become more confident and more eager to assert themselves 18-36 Toddlers sometimes become anxious because now they realize how much they are separating from their caregiver. They work out their awareness of their limitations in fantasy and in play and by identifying with adults Emotions  People differ in: o How often they feel a particular emotion o The kinds of events that may produce it o The physical manifestations they may show o How they act as a result  Culture influences the way people feel about a situation and the way they show their emotions o Ex. In some Asian cultures, where they stress social harmony, discourage expression of anger but place much more importance on shame o Opposite in North America where they stress self-expression, self-assertion, and self-esteem First Signs of Emotion  Newborns cry when they are unhappy  It is harder to tell when they are happy  As time goes by, infants respond to more people (ex. Smiling, cooing)  These early clues to babies’ feelings are important steps in development  When their messages get a response, their sense of connection with other people grows  Their sense of control over their world grows as well – example – they cry, they get comfort, or they smile and laugh, they get smiles and laughter back in return  They become more able to actively participate in regulating their states of arousal and their emotional life  Crying: is the most powerful way infants can communicate their needs o 4 patterns of crying: 1. The hunger cry: a rhythmic cry, not always associated with hunger 2. The angry cry: a variation of the rhythmic cry, in which excess air is forced through the vocal cords 3. The pain cry: a sudden onset of loud crying without preliminary moaning, sometimes followed by holding the breath 4. The frustration cry: two or three drawn-out cries, with no prolonged breath-holding o Current perspectives on the nature of infant crying focus on the role of crying as a sign or as a symptom o From a developmental perspective, crying can play a third role as a signal of the child’s developmental status  Smiling and Laughing: o Earliest smiles occur spontaneously soon after birth, apparently as a result of subcortical nervous system activity. Smiles are involuntary and frequently appear during periods of REM sleep. They become less frequent during the first 3 months as the cortex matures o Earliest waking smiles may be caused by mild sensation o Second week: infant may smile drowsily after a feeding o Third week: most infants begin to smile when they are alert and paying attention to a caregiver’s nodding head and voice o 1 month: smiles generally become more frequent and social o 2 months: babies smile more at visual stimuli (ex. Faces they know) o 4 months: a spontaneous smile can be elicited by the infant at the sight of a parent – an early indication of cognitive development in the child o 4 months: babies start to laugh out loud when kissed on the stomach or tickled o As babies grow older, they become more engaged in mirthful exchanges o Ex. A 6 month old may giggle if the mother does something silly o These changes reflect cognitive development When Do Emotions Appear?  Izard and his colleagues have videotaped infants’ facial expressions and have interpreted them as showing joy, sadness, interest, fear, and to a lesser degree anger, surprise, and disgust  Facial expressions were similar to an adult’s expressions when experiencing those emotions  Facial expressions are not the only index of infants’ emotions  There is also: o Motor activity o Body language o Physiological changes  ex. A baby can be fearful without showing a “fear face”; other indicators of fear could be a faster heartbeat  Basic Emotions: emotional development is an orderly process – complex emotions build on earlier, simply ones (as seen in Figure 8-1)  Soon after birth babies show contentment, interest, distress  These are mostly physiological responses to sensory stimulation or internal processes  During next 6 months, these early emotional states differentiate into true emotions (joy, surprise, sadness, disgust, and last, anger and fear)  True emotions are reactions to events that have meaning for the infant  The emergence of these basic, or primary, emotions is related to the biological “clock” of neurological maturation  Emotions involving the Self: 2 types of emotions involving the self are: o Self-conscious emotions o Self-evaluating emotions  Self-conscious emotions (ex. Envy, embarrassment) arise only after children have developed self-awareness (the cognitive understanding that they have a recognizable identity)  This consciousness of self seems to emerge between 15-24 months  By about age 3, after acquiring self-awareness, and knowing about society’s acceptable standards, rules, and goals, children become better at evaluating their own thoughts, plans, desires, and behaviour against what is considered socially acceptable  Only at this point can they demonstrate self-evaluative emotions of pride, guilt, and shame  Guilt vs. shame – they are distinct emotions  Children who don’t live up to behavioural standards may feel guilty, yet they don’t feel a lack of self-worth, as when they feel ashamed  Their focus is on the bad act, not a bad self  Empathy is to feel that others feel – like guilt, empathy increases with age  Empathy depends on social cognition (the cognitive ability to understand that others have mental states and to gauge their feelings and intentions)  Egocentrism – Piaget believed that egocentrism (inability to see another person’s point of view) delays the development of this ability until the concrete operational stage of middle childhood  other research suggests that social cognition begins much earlier  in one study, 9 month olds (but not 6 month olds) reacted differently to a person who was UNWILLING to give them a toy than to a person who TRIED to give them a toy but accidentally dropped it o this demonstrates that older infants had gained some understanding of another person’s intentions Figure 8-1 (see figure in textbook for illustration) Differentiation of emotions during the first 3 years  the primary emotions emerge during the first 6 months or so  the self-conscious emotions develop beginning in the second half of the second year, as a result of the emergence of self-awareness (consciousness of self) together with accumulation of knowledge about societal standards and rules Brain Growth and Emotional Development  the development of the brain after birth is closely connected with changes in emotional life  bi-directional process: SOCIAL and EMOTIONAL experience are not only affected by brain development, but can have long-lasting effects on the structure of the brain  4 major shifts in brain organization (which roughly correspond to changes in emotions) 1. During first 3 months, differentiation of basic emotions begins as the cerebral cortex becomes functional, bringing cognitive perceptions into play. REM sleep and reflexive behaviour, including the spontaneous neonatal smile diminish 2. 9-10 months, the frontal lobes become larger and more adult-like. Connections between the frontal cortex and the hypothalamus and limbic system, which process sensory information, may facilitate the relationship between the cognitive and emotional spheres. As these connections become denser & more elaborate, an inndnt can experience and interpret emotions at the same time 3. 2 year, when infants develop self-awareness, self-conscious emotions, and a greater capacity for regulating their own emotions and activities. Infants have greater physical mobility and exploratory behaviour. 4. Age 3, when hormonal changes in the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system coincide with the emergence of evaluative emotions. Underlying the development of such emotions as shame may be a shift away from dominance by the sympathetic system, the part of the autonomic system that prepares the body for action, and the maturation of the parasympathetic system, the part of the autonomic system that is involved in excretion and sexual excitation  Temperament – sometimes defined as a person’s characteristic, biologically based way of approaching and reacting to people and situations  The how of behaviour, not the what people do, but how they go about doing it  Temperament has an emotional basis  Temperament is relatively consistent and enduring Studying Temperamental Patterns: The New York Longitudinal Study  New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) – a pioneering study on temperament  Researchers followed 133 infants into adulthood  Almost two thirds of children in the NYLS fell into one of three categories: 1. “easy” children – 42%  Generally happy  This is how Margaret Mead described the infant Cathy 2. “difficult” children – 10%  more irritable and harder to please 3. “slow-to-warm-up” children – 15%  Mild, but slow to adapt to new people and situations  Many children (including 35% of the NYLS sample) do not fit neatly into these categories How is Temperament Measured?  Short form questionnaires  Parental self-report instrument  Rothbart Infant Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ)  Although parental ratings are most commonly used, their validity is in question  Ex. Parents often rate a child’s temperament by comparing them with other children in the family  There could also be bias – parents see their children in a variety of day-to-day situations, whereas a lab observer only sees them in a standardized situation  A combination of methods may be more effective How Stable is Temperament?  Appears to be largely inborn probably hereditary  Strong links between infant temperament and childhood personality at age 7  This does not mean temperament is fully formed at birth – it develops as various emotions develop, and can change due to life experiences  Mead observed that culture can also influence temperament  Infants in Malaysia tend to be less adaptable than U.S babies Temperament and Adjustment: “Goodness of Fit”  According to NYLS, the key to healthy adjustment is goodness of fit – the match between a child’s temperament and the environmental demands and constraints the child must deal with Shyness and Boldness: Influences of Biology and Culture D EVELOPMENTAL ISSUES IN INFANCY Developing Trust  basic trust versus basic mistrust – this stage begins in infancy and continues until about 18 months – babies develop a sense of the reliability of people and objects in their world  babies must develop a balance of trust (lets them form intimate relationships) and mistrust (protects them)  if trust predominates, children develop the “virtue” of hope: the belief that they can fulfill their needs and obtain their desires  if mistrust predominates, children will view the world as unfriendly and unpredictable and will have trouble forming relationships  critical element in developing trust is sensitive, responsive, consistent caregiving Developing Attachments  Attachment is a reciprocal, enduring emotional tie between an infant and a caregiver, each of whom contributes to the quality of the relationship Studying Patterns of Attachment
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