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PSYC 2740 (174)
Chapter 16

Chapter 16

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter 16 Sex Gender and Personality sex differences average differences between women and men in personality or behavior gender stereotypes beliefs about how men and women differ or are supposed to differ in contrast to what the actual differences areThe Science and Politics of Studying Sex and Gender History of the Study of Sex Differences prior to 1973 little attention was paid to sex differences Research used only participants of one sex most often males Elanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklyn changed this by publishing The Psychology of Sex Differences setting off an avalanche of research reviewed hundreds of studies concluded that women were slightly better than men at verbal ability men were slightly better than women in math ability and spatial ability men were more aggressive than womenSince Maccoby and Jacklyns research researchers have developed a more precise quantitative procedure for examining conclusions across studies Meta analysis allows researchers to calculate with greater objectivity and precision whether a particular difference such as sex is consistent across studies Furthermore it also researchers to estimate how large the difference actually is this is the effect size Calculations of Effect Size How Large Are the Sex Differences effect size or d statisticd statistic used to express a difference in standard deviant unitsA d of 50 means that the average difference between two groups is half a standard deviant A d of 100 means the difference between is a full standard deviant effect size can be calculated for each study and then averaged across studies to give a more precise and objective assessment of whether sexes differ women score higher than men ex d score of 085 or 85 large effect sizes for average sex differences do not necessarily have implications for any particular individual Minimalists and MaximistsMinimalist those who describe sex differences as small and inconsequential offer 2 positions 1 empirically most findings of sex differences show small magnitudes of effect minimalists tend to emphasize that the distributions of men and women on any given personality variable show tremendous overlap which reflect their small magnitude effect 2 whatever differences exist do not have much practical importance for behavior in everyday life Maximalist argue that the magnitude of sex differences is comparable to the magnitude of many other effects in psychology and should not be trivialized some differences are small in magnitude others are large and many are moderate even small sex differences can have large practical importance Sex Differences in Personality
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