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PSYC 2740 (174)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - Cognitive Theories and Cognitive Factors

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter 9 Cognitive Theories and Cognitive Factorsy Classroom with 10 yearold kids taught by a graduate psychology student y Young overweight man in ratty clothes comes in and steals the wallet of the grad student y All the kids scream out that the man stole the wallet and one kid chased the man y Grad student asks the kids questions of the person and the event that they witnessed y Empirical experiments on eyewitness testimony show that there are a many ways each person perceives and remembers the same situation and the information y The kids were asked to identify the culprit from a lineup of five men y Two thirds of the children concluded correctly that the culprit wasnt there o This scenario serves as an introduction to individual differences in cognitiony George Kellys Personal Construct Theoryo Constructs are psychologically meaningful cognitive categories They are unique and personalKelly felt there were certain universals in the structure nature and development of constructsClose keeping with Kreitler who suggested that personality traits can be seen entirely in cognitive terms and are unique patterns Kelly suggested that constructs are bipolar with two different polesy One end the more accessible is called the emergent pole y The other end called the implicit polelikeness and contrast poley The implicit pole can become submerged which is when a person becomes cognitively preoccupied even obsessed with a theme that reflects the emergent pole of a construct o Preverbal constructs subconscious cognitive categories that are likely involved in the tip of the tongue phenomenonshould not be equated with the unconscious because they reflect a conscious feeling of knowing but the person cant put the thought or image into words o Submerged constructs One or both ends of the construct are not available for conscious reflection and verbalization o Suspended constructs Previously accessible construct that is now forgotten because of current events similar to repression o Described people as scientists who are trying to describe and understand their world and associated life experiences o Kelly identified three specific conditions that undermine the ability to form new constructsThreat is the first limiting conditiony Here it means that a specific construct is part of a higher order construct that is incompatible with another higher order construct that is necessary for living
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