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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Behavioural and Learning Theories

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Personality Theory and Research Chapter 8 Behavioural and Learning TheoriesTermsDefinitionsApproachavoidance conflict a situation in which one is presented with two opposing options a motivational element suggested by Dollard and MillerAversion therapy an attempt to reduce a behaviour by pairing it with a highly noxious stimulusBehavioural approach system the system proposed by Gray that accounts for individual differences in impulsivity It is linked with an appetitive orientation and involves a sensitivity to reward and situations involving nonpunishmentBehavioural inhibition system the system proposed by Gray that accounts for individual differences in anxiety It is linked with a defensive orientation and elevated sensitivity toward punishment and nonrewardBehaviourism an approach that focuses on the study of observable actions rather than cognitions and internal stimuliBlocking effect in classical conditioning the introduction of a second unconditioned stimulus once another unconditioned stimulus has already been used to create a conditioned response The response to the second unconditioned stimulus is suppressed blocked by the already established conditioning linkClassical conditioning a type of associative learning in which there repetitively occurs a stimulicondition pairing When the stimuli is presented a conditioned response is involuntarily or reflexively displayed A form of conditioning by PavlovConditioned response the previously unconditioned response brought on by a conditioned stimulus For instance the salivation in Pavlovs dogs was originally brought on by the presentation of the meat powder After enough powderbell pairings the dogs would salivate at the sound of the bell even without the presentation of the powder This behaviour is the conditioned responseConditioned stimulus a neutral stimulus that initially has no effect on the subject and that when paired with an unconditioned stimulus produces an unconditioned response The neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus when unconditioned response occurs without the presence of the unconditioned stimulusCovert sensitization a psychosomatic manifestation of aversion therapy A person feels unwell or unpleasant merely by thinking about the undesired behaviour
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