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PSYC 2740 (174)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter Four Reading NotesExperimental Research Independent vs Dependent VariablesAdvantages Conclusions about cause and effect relationships Gives researcher a degree of control Disadvantages Demand Characteristics clues in the experimental setting or procedure that enable the participant to figure out the hypothesis and act in a manner to support it Low in external validity the notion that differences in behaviours that are obtained in the lab may be artificial and not reflect what happens in real world settings Therefore low in generalizability generalizing beyond the lab to more naturalistic contexts Independent Variable the variable that is manipulated within an experiment Creates change and is causal Two types Always has two different conditions Manipulated variable where one level or form of the variable is applied by the experimenter to a subset of the experiment participants but a different level or form of the independent variable is applied to another subset of participants Subject Variable differences between people that can be used to classify participants into discrete groups when conducting an experimentExperimental Condition one of two or more levels of an independent variable that a participant receives in an experiment Random Assignment a key part of those experiments that are designed to make inferences about cause and effect relations Participants should be allocated randomly to one of the experimental conditions so that additional variables that might influence behaviour are spread out evenly across the groups Betweensubjects Variable when one level of an independent variable is applied to some participants in an experiment but not othersWithinsubject variable a repeated measure in an experiment Participant is exposed to two or more levels of the independent variable The unique characteristics of the person are controlled because they are common to all levels of the independent variableOrder Effect when the same person is used repeatedly across different experimental conditions the order that the conditions are experienced in may create a source of biasDependent Variable the outcome variable that is measured in an experiment Represents the effect Interaction or moderator effect when the effect of an independent variable is moderated or influenced by the level of another independent variable Mediator Effects a link between two variables which exists as a result of their mutual link with an intervening variable This intervening rdvariable influences both of these variables3 variableAdditive Model the model that two factors make independent contributions to the prediction of the outcome variable Also known as main effects model Tertial Split the division of a sample into thirds based
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