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PSYC 2740 (174)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Development of Personality

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter 3The Development of PersonalityPersonality Differences in ChildrenSupertraits in Children The FiveFactor ModelAgreeableness Conscientiousness Extroversion Neuroticism and Openness to experienceLittle Fiveconnotes the test of the fivefactor model in young peopleoSignificant correlations between maternal ratings of their adolescents personality and observer ratings of traitrelevant behaviours exhibited by adolescentsFivefactor model received limited support when evaluated in children because openness factor is not clearly evidentoBy the time children enter elementary school individual differences exist in agreeableness extroversion neuroticism and conscientiousnessEysencks Big Three in ChildrenNeuroticism extroversion and psychoticismThe EPQJ Eysenck Personality QuestionnaireJuniorassess 3 dimensions and include a lie scaleoAssess childs selfreports instead of ratings by parents or teachersPersonality Stability Plaster Plastic or BothWilliam Jamesamong first to question whether personality is stable or changingPlastic changingplasticity hypothesis plaster enduringplaster hypothesisoPlasticity Hypothesisthe idea that personality is flexible Reflected by gradual evolving changeFAVOUREDoPlaster Hypothesishabits associated with character take hold and become permanentPeriod between 20 and 30 years of age is critical for developing intellectual and professional habits that will be reflected from the age of 30 years and olderoBefore age 20 is time for formation of personal habitsFactors that Promote Personality StabilityCaspi and Bem 1990 outlined three other ways that personality stability may resultoPeople are proactivemay actively seek out situations and life experiences that are keeping with their personalitiesoPeople are characteristically reactivetend to react in unique but predictable ways to environmental stimulation repeated over and over againoPeople are evocativecertain personal characteristics will elicit similar reactions from other people time and time againMethods of Evaluating the Consistency of Personality TraitsMeanLevel Stabilitybetter to conduct longitudinal investigation in which the same sample of participants is followed over time and means are compared across timeTestRetest Correlationassess relative stability by the correlations between scores when a sample of participants is retested subsequent time intervalsRankOrder Stabilityform of testretest reliability that assess the extent to which when repeatedly measured scores in a distribution of scores have the same relative rank or orderPersonality is essentially stable over timeMetaanalysis indicates a steplike increase in the rank order consistency of personality traits over time peaking among 50 to 70 year oldsStability exists because people are proactive in seeking out or evoking situations that fit their personalitiesoPeople also react in characteristic predictable ways to similar situationsIpsative Stabilityform of testretest reliability that reflects whether a profile of scores s consistent over timeoExists if it is found with most people that the pattern of scores across the five factors was generally similar over timeIpsative ScoringForm of scoring that results in 2 scores not being independent A higher score on one variable decreases or limits the possible value of another variableDynamic StabilityA characteristic or predictable pattern of variability in a persons responses over timeFlux pulse and spinall refer to different ways of characterizing intraindividual variability in interpersonal behaviour oFluxamount of variability that a person has around their mean score on an interpersonal dimensionoPulseregular variability of a persons interpersonal behaviours across timeoSpinindividual differences in the use of different interpersonal styles eg hostile toward one person vs warm and agreeable to another personPersonality Stability and Change in Older PeopleWhen personality changes do take place in the elderly newly introduced life events are indeed importantoNeuroticism increases and extroversion decreases as a function of negative life experiences while openness does not changeoMay be due to specific life eventsAccentuation Principlea way of accounting for the role of life experiences Believe that the experience of life stressors tends to
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