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Chapter 1-6

Personality Chapter 1 -6 notes.docx

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

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Psych 2740 Mid Term Review Personality Chapter 1 Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within an individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his/her interaction with an adaption to the Intrapsychic, physical and social environment Psychological traits characteristics that describe the ways in which people are different from one another Average tendencies displaying certain traits with regularity Psychological mechanisms like traits except mechanisms refers to processes of personality INPUT DECISION RULE OUTPUTS Within the individual personality is something a person carries with him/herself over time and from one situation to the next Organized psych traits and mechanisms not random collection of elements mechanisms + traits are linked to one another in a coherent fashion Enduring traits are relatively consistent over time Influential forces personality traits + mechanisms affect peoples lives how we act and view ourselves, think about the world, interact with others, we feel, select environment, goals and desires personality shapes lives, forces that influence us not the other way around Person environment interaction perceptions, selection, evocation, manipulation Perception how we see, interpret the environment Selection the manner in which we choose situations to enter Evocation reactions we produce in others unintentionally Manipulation intentionally attempt to influence others Adaption central features of personality concerns adaptive functioning accomplishing goals, coping, adjusting, dealing with challenges + problems traits help us function + cope e.g. worrying makes up for lack of social support people will give support Environment can be direct threats to survival (physical), social environments (career, mate, belonging to a group), adapt to environment personality wise Intrapsychic within the mind Three levels of personality analysis 1. Like all others (human nature) general, need for belonging/communication (language) 2. Like some others (individual/group differences) extraversion, fandom 3. Like no others (uniqueness) like no one else, different Individual uniqueness Nomothetic comparison (statistically) of groups, universal human characteristics Idiographic one, single subject analysis Contemporary Research - Ways in which individuals + groups differ - look at individual aspects of personality as a whole to understand it 6 domains of knowledge of knowledge of human behaviour 1. Dispositional Domain traits your born with/develop - ways to differ from one another -goal: identify + measure most important ways in which individuals differ from one another 2. Biological domain traits influenced by biological events - humans are a collection of biological systems, these systems provide building blocks for behaviour, though, and emotion - 3 areas of research: Genetics of personality, psychophysiology (nervous system functioning e.g. neurotransmitters, cortical arousal, pain tolerance, circadian rhythms ), evolution 3. Intrapsychic domain traits influenced by conflict with your mind - mental mechanisms of personality Freud - defense mechanisms repression, denial, projection outside the realm of consciousness 4. Cognitive experiential domain traits influenced by personal and private thoughts (feelings, desires, beliefs, etc.) -cognition + subjective experiences - conscious thoughts, feelings, beliefs, desires - self + self-concept - emotions 5. Social and cultural domain traits influenced by social, cultural and general positions in the world - traits effected by social + cultural context - relationships between men and women (gender) 6. Adjustment domain traits influenced by adjustments that you must make to the inevitable challenges of life - personalitys role in how we cope, adjust, adapt to events in daily life - personality is linked with health related behaviours and outcomes (smoking, heart disease) - disorders in personality Good theory provides guide for researchers, organizes known findings, makes predictionsTheories a speculation based on scientific evidence Belief no factual support i.e. astrology Scientific standards for evaluating personality theories - Comprehensiveness explains all facts = observations - Heuristic Value guide to new discoveries that are unknown - Testability precise + enough predictions to test to test empirically - Parsimony few premises +assumptions - Compatibility + integration across domains + levels no conflicts or inconsistency with other established principles and theories Chapter 2 Personality Assessment, measurement and Research Design Sources of Personality Data - self-report data (S-data) information a persona reveals (most common) Self-Report Data (S-Data) - interviews, questionnaires, periodic reports -unstructured open-ended questions - structured close-ended yes or no questions - likert
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