PSYC 2740 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11-13: Schizoid Personality Disorder, Emotional Dysregulation, Personality Disorder

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Chapter 11
A Brief History of Conceptualizing the Self
William Jones - one of the first to research the self, promoted the view that the self-concept is
o3 components to the self-concept:
The material me
Material possession of the body
Home and environments
The social me
Individuals awareness of his/her identity in the eyes of others
Different social me's depending on how each person perceives us
Sociometer Theory: our self-esteem is essentially a barometer of our
relationships with others
Goes up and down depending on the quality of our interactions
and sense of positive connection with others
The spiritual me
Our awareness of mental processes in terms of our subjective sense of
thoughts, and feelings
Living substance of each person's soul
Atman: realization of one's true self or essential self, and the
realization that ones essential self is indistinguishable from absolute
reality which is brahman
Atman is fused at birth to material aspects of self
oSelf-Esteem: the number of our successes divided by our pretensions (aims and
Can be assessed as the ratio of actualities and accomplishments vs our
Two ways to raise:
Increase accomplishments
Lower goals and expectations
The Looking Glass Self
oSense of self depends on the reactions of other people, and watching how other people
treat us
oPerceptions of significant others relate directly to the self-perceptions that students
have on their own academic capabilities
oPerception of what others expect of us also plays a vital role
oLooking glass can become a magnifying glass
Behaviours performed in public are more likely to be internalized in the form of
self-concept change
oSymbolic Interactionism Theory: we come to view the self from the standpoint of social
Actual treatment we receive from others, our perception of this treatment and
how it feeds back and shapes our self-concept
oMeta-accuracy refers to the extent to which people know how others see them
When people interact with several others they have a generalized meta-
perception that is highly consistent
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They perceive that there are similarities in how they are viewed by
other people
People tend to overestimate the degree of consistency
Level of meta-accuracy depends on whether the focus is on a specific dyad or on
Low accuracy in a dyad with another person but people are substantially
correct when they consider a more global view
When in dyads, people achieve a small degree of accuracy
Greater accuracy when there is a more global focus on how the self is
The Divided Self
oFalse self is the result of a process where the person has developed an unembodied self
where there is a sense of detachment from one's physical being
Develops in response to perceived expectations of significant others, but the
significant others may be perceived as malevolent; hence the fear of paranoid
Erik Erikson and the Psychosocial Stages of Development
*check PSYC1000 notes
Marcia's Levels of Ego Identity Status
oJames Marcia - extended edition of Erikson's identity concept
Ego identity is not an all-or-nothing thing
4 levels of ego identity status:
Identity achievement
Predicted by low neuroticism, high conscientiousness and
Shutdown or freezing or activity whereby the current status quo
is maintained
In the identity crisis period and striving to make personal
commitments but are quite vague
Internally preoccupied and bewildered
Predicted with high neuroticism, low agreeableness, low
Clear expression of commitment but has not yet experienced a
meaningful identity crisis
Don't know where parent's goals end and personal goals begin
Great over idealization of the family
Greatest cognitive rigidity and acceptance of authoritarian
Identity diffusion
Worst case scenario
People with this have the most insecure form of attachment
and tend to distance themselves from parents
Highly reactive to other people who try to manipulate their self-
All 4 levels reflect a crisis and commitment
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Motives and the Self-Concept
5 motives tend to guide the self-concept
oDrive for accurate self-evaluation
Self-Verification Theory: people strive actively to confirm their sense of self
Get a sense of predictability and control
oDesire for accurate self-evaluation
Self-consistency, desire to maintain a sense of continuity and unity with self-
Ie. Some people who are depressed prefer to hear negative feedback to
maintain a consistent stable, self-view
oDesire for self-enhancement
Improving how they feel about themselves
Arguably operates the most extensively
oSelf improvement
Highly-self critical nature
Comparable to desire for self-completion
oSelf presentation
Some people are more preoccupied that others with projecting a certain image
to others
Matters greatly to the individual how others perceive them so they seek
opportunities to show a positive aspect of themselves
Motives are seen in social comparison choices, which occurs when people are uncertain so they
compare themselves to other people
oIe. Comparing results after getting a test back
oDifferent for everyone
Self-improvement as goal: compare with people higher up
Self-enhancement as goal: compare with the worst people
Representations and Conceptualizations of the Self-Concept
Self-Complexity and the Self-Concept Clarity
oDegree of self-complexity is an important buffer against stress and threats in terms of
vulnerability to maladjustment
oSelf-Concept Clarity: the degree of certainty and the lack of ambiguity that people have
regarding their self-concepts
Someone high in the eriksonian concept of identity diffusion would have low
self-concept clarity
Low self-esteem linked to low clarity
oCompensatory Conviction: mode of repression that serves the defensive function of
keeping unwanted thoughts about the self out of conscious awareness
Almost a form of cognitive distraction
The Spontaneous Self-Concept
oDerived from an open-ended, unstructured way of assessing the self-concept
oMulti-faceted, 7 components
oDistinctive Hypothesis: tendency for people to spontaneously mention personal
features about themselves that make them relatively unique
Possible Selves
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