Textbook Notes (369,133)
Canada (162,403)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 3020 (97)
Dan Yarmey (94)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12.docx

6 Pages
109 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3020
Professor
Dan Yarmey

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Description
Chapter 12 – Assessment and Treatment of Young Offenders HISTORICAL VIEW th th - 17 /18 century Canada treats young offenders as adult offenders, no considerations given to how charged, sentenced, incarcerated - Treated just as adults were, stayed in same prisons, even death penalty was similar to that of adults. - Juvenile Delinquents Act (JDA)-1908: enacted b/c of previous disregard for youth offenders, applied to 7-16 (some places 18) years olds.  Called delinquents, not offenders b/c thought to commit acts of delinquency rather than offences  Separate court system created where proceedings informal b/c children misguided  JDA made possible to transfer child to adult court if case more serious, encouraged parents to get involved  Punishments included sending to industrial schools, adjournment w/o penalty, fines, probation, foster care  Minimum age of 7 set for when child could be charged with criminal offence  Judges had sentencing discretion and sentencing options increased  But JDA denied rights (i.e. rule to counsel, right to appeal, judges could impose open ended questions) - YOA took effect 1984: said youth responsible for actions, but acknowledged had different cognitive development than adults.  Youth should be given all rights stated in Canadian Charter of Rights  YOA allowed divert cases-meaning wont prosecute but have undergo community service program, but had to plead guilty  Youth had to be 12-18 years old, less than 12- dealt with child/family services  YOA also transferred youth to adult courts in serious cases if were at least 14  Other dispositions: offender receives no sentence, but guilty verdict given, fine, compensation/restitution to victim(s), community service, probation etc.  Or two types of custody placements: open- placing youth in community residential area, group home etc. or secure- incarcerating youth in prison facility - Changes made to YOA (1986) so that defendants stop pleading guilty to avoid adult court: Bill C106, section 16: required court to consider if Crown/defense wanted to make application and transfer to adult court  Changed again in 1995- 16\17 would go to adult court if charged murder, manslaughter, aggravated sexual assault, but are chances to remain in youth court st  Bill C37: 1 degree murder, 10 year max with 6 years max incarcerated. Second degree: 7 year max with 4 year max. incarcerated  Criticisms included that violent offences given light sentences & raising min age from 7 to 12 - April 1, 2003: Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) REPLACED YOA; 3 main objectives: 1. Prevent youth crime 2. Provide meaningful consequences/encourage responsibility for behavior 3. Improve rehabilitation/reintegration of youth into community - YJCA wants youth to stay out trouble/prison, encourage police to consider extrajudicial measures: term applied to measures taken to keep young offenders out of court and out of custody ( e.g. – giving a warning or making referral for treatment) NAMING YOUTH - Under YCJA, name of youth can’t be reported to public, only under special circumstances:  Defendants b/w 14-17convicted serious, violent offences  If youth considered dangerous to public, photo can be published  If youth hasn’t been apprehended - Murder of Toronto youth, Stefanie Rengel in 2008: suspects names not released but users on Facebook posted who suspects were, police officials/ Facebook staff took it down but was later reposted, can be difficult to monitor that stuff - Sec 42 of YCJA says judges can give youth lecture/warning, intensive support/supervision order, make attend specific program, make serve time in community if imposed conditions met, and give intensive rehabilitation custody/supervision. - Process of transfer eliminated, but judge can impose adult sentencing if youth 14+ but must notify Crown before - Key issue is sentence must be proportionate to seriousness of offence - Under YJCA, victims to be informed and able to participate in court proceedings, access youth court records - Canada’s YJCA got recognition from two British researchers, praising for reduced crime rates, imprisoning fewer youth. Box 12.1- sex, text & Murder - 15 year old Melissa Todorovic, 17 yr David Bagshaw two teens in love w/ jealous, obsessive relationship, relationship lasted a few weeks, wasn’t sexual - Todorovic jealous of Bagshaw’s ex relationship w/ Stefanie Rengel, told Bagshaw if he didn’t kill her she would have sex with other guys - Bagshaw jealous, took kitchen knife from home, went to Stefanie’s telling her to come out and stabbed her 6 times, left her for dead. - Before going to Stefanies house, Todorovic and Bagshaw made calls to each other - After murder, Bagshaw went Todo’s house and had sex, that evening Bagshaw arrested. YOUTH CRIME RATES - Youth crime rates have been decreasing for past few years - Probation most frequent sentence ( from 2008-2009, 18012 youths on probation), this also stable in previous year - Youth in custody from 2003-2004, dropped 42% once YJCA introduced ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG OFFENDERS Assessing Those under Age 12 - Although not required, most Clinicians will get consent from parents, as youth can’t give consent - After parental consent, will get agreement from child - Youths behavior difficulties categorized as:  Internalizing problems: emotional difficulties such as anxiety, depression and obsessions experienced by a youth  Externalizing problems: Behavioural difficulties such as delinquency, fighting, bullying, lying or destructive behavior experienced by a youth - Externalizing more difficult to treat b/c long term persistence, mostly stable, peaks during teens and decrease late 20’s, more frequent for males, than females w/ 10:1 ratio - Internalizing can also co-occur, imp to assess as well - To assess externalizing, need to ask other informant b/c child might not be aware of it (i.e. parents, teachers etc.) should be looked at in developmental context. - 3 childhood psychiatric diagnoses occur w/ some frequency:  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Disorder in youth characterized by persistent pattern of inattention and hyperactivity or impulsivity - Doesn’t appear to listen when spoken to, difficulty organizing, lose items, fidgets, talks excessively - To qualify for ADHD, # symptoms present, occur in two/more settings, persist for 6 months, child age taken to consideration, symptoms can be present in many children, part of normal development. - Many children w/ ADHD, also diagnosed with ODD, CD  Oppositional defiant disorder: disorder in youth characterized by persistent pattern of negativistic, hostile and defiant behavior - Loses temper, purposely annoys ppl, and vindictive, approx. 40% children diagnosed also develop CD.  Conduct disorder: disorder characterized by persistent pattern of behavior in which youth violates rights of others or age-appropriate societal norms or roles - Initiates physical fights, physically cruel to animals, sets fire, lies for gains, truant b4 age 13. - Approx 50% children diagnosed w/ antisocial personality disorder in adulthood ASSESSING THE ADOLESCENT - If behavior of adolescent brought to court, will be assessed w/o agreement of child, must asses risk for reoffending so risk to community reduced - Usually assessed with checklist of items that scored on scale, points summed up cut off for detaining/releasing young offender - Risk assessment takes in static factors (can’t change i.e. age) and dynamic factors (can change i.e. antisocial behavior), and history of offences, then total risk score obtained - If more relevant risk factors present, more likely youth reoffends - Harder to assess children than adults b/c don’t have years behind them of offences and behavior could be influenc
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit