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PSYC 3020 (97)
Dan Yarmey (94)

PSYC*3020 Unit 7.doc

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PSYC 3020
Dan Yarmey

Unit 7 The Child as an Eyewitness and VictimIntroductioncriminal victimization can have a persistent impact on a persons emotional and cognitive wellbeingindividuals may show symptoms of shock anxiety depression sleep disturbances flashbacks loss of emotional control guilty helplessness memory loss this units describes the psychological effects of being victimized by robbery and residential burglary sexual assault and rape and spousal abuseVictimization25 of the adult population reported being victimized in 1995 placing it midpoint among 10 other western industrialized countriesamong 11 western industrialized countries Canadians were most satisfied with their policecrimes may be classified into 2 categories 1 crimes with victims and 2 victimless crimescriminal victimization is defined as the loss of property andor bodily injury as a result of a particular negative event such as homicide adult robbery or sexual assaultfemales and older people may feel more vulnerable to crime but are less likely to be victimizedwhites have less likelihood of being victimized particularly of violent crimessingle people who have never married or who are divorced are more likely to be victimizedmost perpetrators of violent crime are strangers to the victim50 of common assaults are made by people familiar to the victim the poor uneducated unemployed and students are at greater risk of being victimscitizens fail to report many crimes to authorities because fear of reprisal feelings of helplessness and the belief that the police cannot do anythingmany victims choose not to press charges because they fear they will be judges responsible for the assault and testifying will be too traumaticPsychological Reactions and Copingmost serious threat to wellbeing is psychological injuryvictims may experience emotional cognitive and behavioral disruptions often show symptoms of shock anxiety depression sleep disturbances flashbacks and recollections of the traumatic event loss of emotional control guilt helplessness memory loss inability to concentrate an exaggerated startle response and obsessive fantasies about the crime and assailantbeliefs in selfworth and selfesteem may be shatteredthese responses collectively are known as posttraumatic stress disordervictims resort to a number of avoidance behaviours and defencevigilant behaviours such as avoiding strangers the street or place where they were assaultedoften seek help from others including relatives friends the police counselorsthose sought out for help may not give the assistance expectedthe victim may be victimized twice second by the negative social responses of othersvictim may begin to doubt the validity of their complaintssocial rejection and wholesale punishment are more obvious reactionspeople know crimes are common but most believe it wont happen to themthis belief in unique invulnerability becomes shattered by victimizationaccording to the just world hypothesis people get what they deservethe world no longer appears to be meaningful to victims who felt they were careful and in control and feel more at risk for further victimizationvictims may be blamed for their fate and held responsibleRobbery and Residential Burglaryvictims discover that police insurance agents and burglar alarm salesmen may treat their victimization as a set of technological problemsemotional reactions shivering nausea often occur as a result of the combination of the unexpectedness of the event the public image or media account of burglaries and the imagination of the victimvictims nee dot have a crime prevention officer visit their residences and provide a few simple tips on how to make them more securewhen investigating officers take an interest in their fears and encourage them to make changes there is a greater likelihood of successful reestablishment of a sense of securityRead Textbook Chapter 14 pg 354369Chapter 14 Sexual and Homicidal OffendersSexual OffendersNature and Extent of Sexual Violencesexual violence is on par with homicide in terms of how perpetrators are vilified by societyin 2008 just over 20 992 sexual assaults were reported to the police in Canadaofficial statistics do not provide an accurate measure of the true incidence of this type of crime since the majority of victims to not report the crime to the policevictims do not report for the following reasons victims often dont feel that the matter is important enough the believe the matter has already been dealt with they feel the matter is too personal or they simply dont want to involve the police1 in 12 children and youth are victimized 1020 of adult women have been rapedsexual child abuse is 17 prevalent for females and 8 for malesrapists have an average of 7 victims femalevictim child molesters have 20 victims and malevictim child molesters average 150 victims
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