Psyc 3020 Unit 7 Chapter 14 pp. 354-369 - Sexual and Homicide Offenders.
Nature and extent of Sexual Violence:
In 2008, 63 in 100 000 people reported sexual assaults to the Canadian police, a slight drop in previous
Victims don’t report because: its not important enough, already been dealt with, too personal, don’t
want the cops involved.
Children, youth and women are most highly victimized.
127 rapists reported almost double female child victim and equal child male victims.
Definition of Sexual Assault:
Any non-consensual sexual act by either a male or a female person to either a male or a female person,
regardless of the relationship between the people involved.
Divided into 3 levels of severity: simple sexual assault (max 10 years sentence), sexual assault with a
weapon or causing bodily harm (max 14 years), and aggravated sexual assault (max life).
Consequences for Victims:
Psychological and physical consequences
Child victims of sexual abuse develop short and long term problems. 70% experience psychological
symptoms a year post rape. Long term problems: substance abuse, depression, eating disorders,
30% contract STIs. 5% results in pregnancy.
Rape trauma syndrome: group of symptoms or behaviours that are frequent after-effects of having been
Burgess and Holmstrom divided effects of rape into two phases: acute crisis phase (lasting for a few
days-several weeks, severe symptoms: fear, anxiety, depression) and long-term reactions phase (lasting
from few months to several years. Symptoms: development of phpbias, sexual problems, depression).
¼ women rape victims do not significantly recover.
¼ women and 1/6 men have been sexually assaulted.
80% of cases, victims know their attacker.
Most sexual assaults occur in a private home and many in the victim’s home.
False accusations happen but are very rare, sexual assault is the most under-reported crime. Post-traumatic stress disorder: anxiety disorder that can develop in response to exposure to an
extremely traumatic event. Symptoms: distressing, intrusive memories of event, avoiding stimuli
associated with event.
PTSD symptoms in female rape victims after 9 months: 47% classified as having PTSD
Classification of Sexual Offenders:
Voyeurs: people who obtain sexual gratification by observing unsuspecting people, usually strangers,
who are naked, undressing, or engaging in sex
Exhibitionist: someone who obtains sexual gratification by exposing his/her genitals to strangers
Rapist: person who sexually assaults victims over 16 years of age
Pedophile: person whose primary sexual orientation is toward children
Child molester: someone who has actually sexually molested a child
Intra-familial child molesters: people who sexually abuse their own children or step children. AKA incest
Extra-familial child molester: someone who sexually abuses children not related to him or her.
MTC:R3 Rapist typologies:
- Opportunistic: impulsive, void of sexual fantasies, controlled primarily by situational factors. Ex.
burglar who ends up raping.
- Pervasively angry: high anger directed toward both men and women. Impulsive, unnecessary
force, victim injury, void sexual fantasies.
- Sexual: motivated by sexual preoccupation or fantasies
- Sadistic: similar to sexual but must be sadistic element to offence
- Vindictive: similar to angry type but focused on solely on women. Goal is to demean and
Groth suggests rapists can be divided into 3 main types:
- Anger rapists: uses more force than necessary to obtain compliance from victim, engages in
variety of acts to degrade the victim (50% or rapes)
- Power rapists: seeks to establish dominance and control over victim (40% of rapes)
- Sadistic rapists: obtains sexual gratification by hurting the victim (5% or rapes)
Child Molester Typologies:
- Fixated child molester: has a long-standing exclusive sexual preference for children. Mainly
target young boys, offences are planned, poor social skills, single, no history of drug or alcohol
abuse, no remorse over their behaviour - Regressed child molester: primary sexual orientation is toward adults, but whose sexual
interests revert to children after a stressful event or because of feelings of inadequacy. Female
children primary targets, feelings of stress and inadequacy involved, offences more impulsive,
often married with marital problems, related to alcohol use, feel remorse.
Sex-pressure child molester: uses persuasion or entrapment, may buy child gifts or take the child out
on fun outings
Sex-force child molester: uses threats or physical force.
Adolescent Sexual Offenders:
Discredited prior to the 1980s
20% of rapes, 40% of child sexual abuse are committed by adolescents
Usually victims of sexual abuse themselves, other factors include inadequacy, lack of intimacy, and
Tend to abuse female victims, 63% of victims under age 9
Female Sexual Offenders
Research is limited because only 2-5% of incarcerated sex offenders are female.
Sexual abuse by females is underestimated: women are able to mask behaviours in caregiving
activities, more likely to target their own children thus less likely to report, boys less likely to
Atkinson suggests 4 types of female sexual offenders:
- Teacher/lover: sexual abuse of male adolescent that they relate to as a peer. Offender often has
authority, rarely reported, not experienced childhood sexual abuse, substance abuse is
common, not aware behaviour is inappropriate, “in love” with victim, victims often participate
- Male-coerced: offenders are coerced into sexual abuse by