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PSYC 3030 (15)
Chapter 1

Drugs & Behaviour - Chapter One - Textbook Notes.pdf

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PSYC 3030
Masood Kamlani

Chapter One: Drug Use and Abuse Chapter 1 defines the major terms associated with drug use and explains the drug classification systems. What influences drug use and how that use affects us is the subject of drugs and human behaviour. Pages 1 – 20; Did you know?  A drug‟s street name sometime describes the actual effect of that drug  Drugs tend to have a greater effect on women than men because men have less body fact, not because they typically weigh more than women  The highest rates of alcohol and other drug use are found among 18 – 25 year olds  A majority if Canadians believe that if you try drugs you are likely to become dependant Intro  What we see and hear in the media often focuses on the negative consequences of drug use, drugs are popular all over the world because people perceive that they benefit from drugs  Individual Level: People say that drugs make them feel more relaxed, socialize more easily, feel sexier, escape boredom, and feel more confidant and assertive.  Group or Community Level: drugs have been used for thousands of years as part of social and religious rituals. A drug used for such purposes has little to do with the drug‟s chemistry but rather with the social or cultural factors  Drugs have also been used to help ease suffering in humans and animals for specific medical purposes  One society may condone drugs (western) and another may condemn it (eastern – Islamic)  Food is good. Poison is bad. Drugs may be good or bad, and whether they are seen as good or bad depends on the person looking at them. Defining Drug Use and Abuse  The scientific study of drugs is new and is called pharmacology it is concerned with all information about the effects of chemical substances on living systems  Pharmacology is consisted a part of biology and allied with physiology and biochemistry  Psychopharmacology is an area within the field of pharmacology that focuses on the effects of drugs on behaviour  Understanding how drugs affects human behaviour requires knowledge about biological, personal, social and environmental factors  Defining drug is not simple  Broadly defined: drug is any chemical entity or mixture of entities, other than those required for the maintenance of normal health (like food), the administration of which alters biological function and possibly structure  What is Drug Use and what is Drug Abuse?  Many uses for drugs include instrumental such as reduce pain or anxiety or recreational such as to get high or relax.  Drug Abuse any use of drugs that causes physical, psychological, legal, or social harm to the individual or to others affected by the drug user‟s behaviour  Abuse is drug use with negative consequences and drug use is the larger category with drug abuse as a subset Drug Classification  Classification system for drugs; based on the primary properties of drugs to communicate a drug‟s nature and they ways it can be used. (see Table below for major ways of classifying drugs)  We focus on drug use and abuse of psychoactive drugs, those that affect moods, thinking and behaviour, these drugs are the most likely to be used  Some substances have been designated formally as psychoactive drugs, such as alcohol, others have not, such as aspirin. Classification System General Classification Details/Limitations Example Criteria Origin Distinguishes source of May include many drugs Opiates drugs (ex. plant) that have different chemical effects Therapeutic use Similarities in how a drug Outlines dosage and use Morphine (used for pain) is used to treat or modify of medical treatments, Amphetamines (used for something in the body although some drugs are appetite suppressant) used differently from their therapeutic use (ex. Abuse of pain relievers) Site of Drug Action Where in the body the Limited when a drug Alcohol depresses the drug is causing physical affects several different CNS changes body sites Cocaine stimulates the CNS Chemical Structure Similarities in the Synthetic compounds for Barbiturates are derived chemical structures, the chemical base of from chemical structure which derive synthetic specific drugs barbituric acid compounds Mechanism of Action How a drug produces its Similar effects are used to Alcohol and nicotine drug effectsv categorize pharmacology depress the CNS and May affect the same body decrease appetite site Street Name Comes from drug Names typically reflect Amphetamines are called “subcultures” and the actual drug effects speed street drug market Barbiturates or depressants are called downers Use of the DSM-IV  Includes a category for “substance related” (alcohol or other drug related) disorders, which differentiates between “substance dependence” and “substance abuse”  Dependence and abuse are considered separate diagnoses. A person could not be diagnosed with both dependence with dependence and abuse of a given substance, although it is possible to meet the criteria for dependence on one substance and for abuse of another  Substance Dependence DSM: 1. Tolerance 2. Withdrawal 3. Substance often taken in larger amounts or over a period longer than intended 4. Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use 5. A great deal of time is spent in obtaining the substance 6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use 7. Substance use continues despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent problem that is caused or exacerbated by the substance  Substance Abuse DSM: 1. Recurrent substance use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home 2. Recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous 3. Recurrent substance-related legal problems 4. Continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance Dependence, Tolerance, and Withdrawal Substance Dependence: vi  According to the DSM, substance dependence , a strong compulsion to continue taking a particular drug, is diagnosed when at least 3 of the 7 criteria listed for dependence are present at any time in the same 12 month period  There are two types of dependence:  Physical Dependence: drug-taking behaviours continue in order to avoid negative consequences associated with physical withdrawal symptoms  Psychological Dependence: drug-taking behaviours persist based on the craving for the positive effects associated with using the drugs Drug Tolerance:  DSM for dependence also includes the term drug tolerance  Drug tolerance viiis defined as the repeated administration of a given dose of a drug that often results in reduced response to the drug  There are 3 distinct types of tolerance involving different mechanisms: dispositional, functional, and behavioural  Dispositional Tolerance: occurs when the regular use of a drug results in an increase in the metabolism rate of the drug and so the individual must ingest greater quantities to maintain the drug at a certain level in their body  Functional Tolerance: means that the brain and other parts of the CNS become less sensitive to a drug‟s effects. Two types of functional tolerance: Acute and Protracted  Acute Tolerance: measured within the course of action of a single dose of a drug  Protracted Tolerance: the effects of a given dose of a drug  Behavioural Tolerance: involves a behavioural adjustment by the person, which through experience in using drugs, compensates for its effects. (ex. Alcohol on motor functioning, walking slowing as not to fall) ix  In some cases, tolerance to one drug may extend to other closely related drugs – cross-tolerance . People who have developed tolerance to one drug also will have tolerance to certain other drugs, even though they may never have taken those drugs Withdrawal:  Withdrawal is a definable illness that occurs with a cessation or decrease in drug use after the body has adjusted to the presence of the drug to such a degree that it cannot function without the drug  Not all drugs are associated with an identifiable withdrawal syndrome xi  Severity of symptoms may change with the characteristics of the users and their history of use of that drug. Psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and craving for drugs are often associated  Both drug tolerance and withdrawal affect drug-use patterns  Withdrawal symptoms from drug use also
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