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Chapter 2

PSYC 3080 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Extraversion And Introversion, Conscientiousness

Course Code
PSYC 3080

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Chapter 2: Personality and Learning
Learning is a critical requirement for effective organizational behavior
oEmployee learning must be continuous and lifelong
oBehavior is also a function of people’s personalities
What is Personality
The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an
individual interacts with his or her environment (people, situations and problems)
Excessive typing of people does not help us to appreciate their unique potential to
contribute to an organization
Personality and Organizational Behaviour
Dispositional approach
oIndividuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes
and behaviours
oDecades of research failed to support the usefulness of personality as a predictor
of organizational behaviour and job performance
Situational approach
oCharacteristics of the organizational setting influence people’s attitudes and
oJob satisfaction and other work-related attitudes determined by situational factors
Internationalist approach
oIndividuals attitudes and behaviour are a function of both dispositions and the
oThis approach is most widely accepted
Trait activation theory
oTraits lead to certain behaviours only when the situation make the need for the
trait salient
oKey concept is fit
Putting the right person into the right job, group or organization and
exposing different employees to different management styles
The Five-Factor Model of Personality
oExtent to which a person is outgoing vs. shy
oExtraversion is important for jobs that require a lot of interpersonal interaction
(such as sales and management)
oSociable/Talkative vs. Withdrawn/Shy
Emotional stability/ Neuroticism
oThe degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control
oPeople with high are self-confident and have high self-esteem , low tend toward
self-doubt and depression
oHigh are more likely to have more effective interactions with co-workers and
oStable/Confident vs. Depressed/Anxious
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oThe extent to which a person is friendly and approachable
oContributes to job performance in jobs that require interaction and involve
cooperating, nurturing, and teamwork
oToolerant/Cooperative vs. Cold/Rude
oDegree to which a person is responsible and achievement oriented
oHigh are likely to perform well on most jobs
oDependable/Responsible vs. Careless, Impulsive
Openness to experience
oExtent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas
oPeople who are high tend to do well in jobs that involve learning and creatively
Tend to be intellectual, curious, imaginative and have broad interests
These tend to hold up cross culturally
oAlso have genetic basis
Research evidence
oEach of the big five dimensions are related to job performance
Those on the high degree lead to better job performance and citizenship
Dependent on occupation
High conscientiousness predicts for all jobs and is the strongest predictor
oThe big five are related to work motivation and job satisfaction
Neuroticism and conscientiousness strongest predictors of motivation
Neuroticism associated with lower job satisfaction
Extraversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness higher job
Higher conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and emotional
stability perform better on teams
oThe big five are related to job search and career success
Extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and
agreeableness positive to the intensity of job seeker’s search
Conscientiousness positively related to obtaining employment
High conscientiousness, extraversion and low neuroticism associated
with higher income and occupational status
Locus of Control
Locus of control: A set on beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by internal
or external forces
oInternal believe that the opportunity to control their own behaviour resides within
oExternal believe that external forces (such as situation or luck) determine their
Internals see stronger link between effort and performance level they achieve
oNotice high performance and reward it
oMore likely to be aware of and take advantage of information to improve
oMore satisfied with their jobs, more committed to organizations, earn more
money, achieve higher positions
oPerceive less stress, cope with stress better, experience less burnout, and engage
in more careful career planning
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