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Chapter 5

PSYC 3110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Foucauldian Discourse Analysis, Participatory Action Research, Kurt Lewin

Course Code
PSYC 3110
Kieran O' Doherty

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Chapter 5: 84-104
Action Research
Looks at the process of change and what stimulates it
Investigator: facilitator who works with a community or organization to help
a situation occur or change direction
In organizations it usually works to make improvements
In communities it increases agency, control, and self determination
Kurt Lewin started this research in 40s
Action research not used extensively in health psychology
o Research surveillance used in communities
Weaker version of action research
Participatory action research can create direct social action to promote
health related change
Method takes time to do and needs extensive research
Between Groups Design
Matches groups of people to different treatments
o Cross sectional design- same idea but measures are taken one at a
o Longitudinal design- groups are tested at two or more times
Failure of difference found between treatments due to:
o They are equally effective
o They are equally ineffective
o They are equally harmful
Control groups allow for looking at if treatments show different effects than
no treatments
Case Studies
Detailed descriptive account of an individual, group, or collective
Need to be expansive in data collected to like person with context
Usually provides chronological account of the situation
Strength: combines person and context and the developmental perspective
Empirical case study- see the general in the particular
o Moves inductively (specific to general)
Confidence Interval
Interval around the mean that the researcher can say has the mean
o E.g. a population parameter
Reliability varies according to size
Gives a range of values where the specific one is
Reported in tables or graphs
Cross over or Within Participants Designs
Used when the same people give measures more than one time
o Differences measured between times

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Lowers the effects of individual differences
o Change may be due to other factors changing
o Change may be due to the measuring instrument
o Failure to find a difference doesn’t mean a definite there isn’t one
Cross Sectional Design
Responses from participants at one time only
Randomized samples allow researcher to assume its representative
Inexpensive in time and resources
Problems of interpretation when questions of random design arise
Issue: A third variable may be causing results
Diary Techniques
Used for getting information on temporal changes in health
Help in evaluating interventions
More detailed the diary, more detailed the evaluation
o Getting researcher to record in diary regularly
o Can be psychologically beneficial
o Can lead to reduction in illness symptoms
Direct Observation
Observing in a relevant setting
Can be accompanied by recordings that are written, oral, auditory, or visual
Can be:
o Casual observation
o Formal observation
o Participant observation
Ethical concerns with non consenting participants
Discourse Analysis
Procedures for analyzing language
Focuses on language and how it is used to create social reality
o Looks at what is gained by creating these events
Two forms:
o Discursive psychology- looks at the conversation context
Language is a way of social action, not a way to represent
thoughts and ideas
Used in patient talk and doctor-patient interactions
o Foucauldian discourse analysis- identify broader resources in a
culture used in everyday life
Shape how we interpret and act and define ourselves
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