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Chapter 5

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PSYC 3110
Kieran O' Doherty

Chapter 5: 84-104 Action Research  Looks at the process of change and what stimulates it  Investigator: facilitator who works with a community or organization to help a situation occur or change direction  In organizations it usually works to make improvements  In communities it increases agency, control, and self determination  Kurt Lewin started this research in 40s  Action research not used extensively in health psychology o Research surveillance used in communities  Weaker version of action research  Participatory action research can create direct social action to promote health related change  Method takes time to do and needs extensive research Between Groups Design  Matches groups of people to different treatments o Cross sectional design- same idea but measures are taken one at a time o Longitudinal design- groups are tested at two or more times  Failure of difference found between treatments due to: o They are equally effective o They are equally ineffective o They are equally harmful  Control groups allow for looking at if treatments show different effects than no treatments Case Studies  Detailed descriptive account of an individual, group, or collective  Need to be expansive in data collected to like person with context  Usually provides chronological account of the situation  Strength: combines person and context and the developmental perspective  Empirical case study- see the general in the particular o Moves inductively (specific to general) Confidence Interval  Interval around the mean that the researcher can say has the mean o E.g. a population parameter  Reliability varies according to size  Gives a range of values where the specific one is  Reported in tables or graphs Cross over or Within Participants Designs  Used when the same people give measures more than one time o Differences measured between times  Lowers the effects of individual differences  Problems: o Change may be due to other factors changing o Change may be due to the measuring instrument o Failure to find a difference doesn’t mean a definite there isn’t one Cross Sectional Design  Responses from participants at one time only  Randomized samples allow researcher to assume its representative  Inexpensive in time and resources  Problems of interpretation when questions of random design arise  Issue: A third variable may be causing results Diary Techniques  Used for getting information on temporal changes in health  Help in evaluating interventions  More detailed the diary, more detailed the evaluation  Challenge: o Getting researcher to record in diary regularly  Benefit: o Can be psychologically beneficial o Can lead to reduction in illness symptoms Direct Observation  Observing in a relevant setting  Can be accompanied by recordings that are written, oral, auditory, or visual  Can be: o Casual observation o Formal observation o Participant observation  Ethical concerns with non consenting participants Discourse Analysis  Procedures for analyzing language  Focuses on language and how it is used to create social reality o Looks at what is gained by creating these events  Two forms: o Discursive psychology- looks at the conversation context  Language is a way of social action, not a way to represent thoughts and ideas  Used in patient talk and doctor-patient interactions o Foucauldian discourse analysis- identify broader resources in a culture used in everyday life  Shape how we interpret and act and define ourselves Effect Size  Strength of the association between study variables and outcomes  Measured by observed differences and correlation  Most common: o Cohen’s d and Pearson’s r  Measure of the importance of an effect o Not the significance  Used in meta analysis to measure the magnitude of results Ethnographic Methods  Create an understanding of culture from the viewpoint of those in the culture  Describe shared beliefs, practices, artifacts, behaviours, and knowledge  Detailed observation is important o Overt- researcher doesn’t disguise that they’re a researcher o Covert-  Not aware of the presence of a researcher  Or aware that there is a person but not that they’re a researcher Focus Groups  One or more group discussions where participants focus on an issue or topic  Creates interactive data  Initially used in marketing research  Researcher acts as a moderator o Created guidelines for discussion o Makes sure the participants have an opportunity to express their views Grounded Theory Analysis  Guidelines for conducting qualitative data analysis  Glaser and Strauss (1967) originally created it  Original: o Researchers give theoretical assumptions before research began  Generating data- may have general ideas about the topic but should not restrict the participant from expanding  Positivist perspective- themes emerge from data and researcher has to look for them  Social constructionist perspective- theoretical concepts guides data
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