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Chapter 6

PSYC 3110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Multiple Sex Partners, Health Belief Model, Genital Wart

Course Code
PSYC 3110
Kieran O' Doherty

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Ch 6 116-134, 137-139
Chapter 6: Sexual Health
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs):
- passed on through intimate sexual contact
- passed through vaginal, oral and anal sex as well as genital contact
- common STIs are chlamydia , genital warts and gonnorhea
- more serious but rare are syphilis and HIV
- greatest affected age is 16-24years
- in the UK, it has been steadily rising since the 1990s
- the number of AIDs cases in adolescent boys has doubled
- HIV has been rising across the globe steadily
- Most of the funds for HIV/AIDs prevention programs are posters but there is
little evidence for the affectiveness
Knowledge/ awareness & condom use:
- survey showed that more than 1/5 people in the UK could not identify the
main ways in which HIV is transmitted
- survey revealed that FEWER people in 2007 were unable to identify the
correct ways in which HIV is transmitted
o over 1/5 didn’t understand that they could get HIV from having
unprotected sex
o 31% did not know that sharing a needle/ syringe is a way of
contracting HIV
- survey found that increase in the percentage of people would only stop using
condoms in a relationship once they’ve both been tested
- 24% say they rarely use a condom with a new partner
- Africa highest AIDs rate in world
- Risky sexual behavior has been studied in relation to social and educational
status and to habits such as dirnking, smoking and drugs
- Associated with poor academic performance
- Poor grades in highschool predicted high risk sexual behavior
- 3 barriersto suing modern contraceptives were
o misinformation and negative perceptions
o gaps in knowledge
o concern about social opposition from male partners
- college students many have multiple sex partners and limited condom use
- alcohol and drug use prior to sexual activity is a predictor of unsafe sex
poor decision making
- negative psychological consequences, guilt and reduced self esteem tend to
follow unplanned sexual activity
- frequent condom use was reported about 40 percent of men and women
- lack of condom use is also by motivational and emotional factors, as well as

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Individual level theories
- basic interventions using this approach are based on preconceived
theoretical ideas “top-down”
o the interventions of this approach are constructed without any
involvement of the intended participants
The Health Belief Model
- developed by Rosenstock
- example of a cognition model which examines the predictors and precursors
to health beahviour
- contains four constructs
o perceived susceptibility
o perceived severity
o perceived barriers
o perceived benefits
- the likelihood of a bhaviour is influenced by “cues to action” which are
reminders or prompts to take action with intention
- these cues can be internal or external
- the HBM takes into account factors to predict the likelihood of implementing
health related behavior
- demographic factors (eg. Age, sex, socio-economic background), psycho-
social factors (personality traits, peer influence etc. ) and structural factors
(knowledge) have been added to the model
- the HBM has been tested in several studies of sexual health show
inconsistent results of the various studies
o predicting condom use and risk sexual practices in heterosexual
college students did not specifically predict condom use and only
partially explained risky sexual behaviours
o predictors of HIV antibody testing among gay, lesbian and bisexual
youth moderately positive outcome
o studied perceptions of HIV and STI risk among low-income
heterosexual adults (somewhat neglected group) perceived their
vulnerability to infection declining with increasing age and decreasing
frequency of coitus, condom use sig. declined with increasing age
o investigated social-cognitive determinants of condom use among
ethnic minority communities in Amsterdam perceived
susceptibility and severity of HIV and of condom use and cues of
actions did not help to explain condom use which disconfirms the
HBM in the sample
Protection Motivation Theory
- developed by Rogers to describe coping with a health threat in light of two
appraisal processes threat appraisal and coping appraisal
- according to PMT, behavior change is BEST achieved by appealing to an
individual’s fears
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