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Chapter 7

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PSYC 3110
Kieran O' Doherty

Chapter 7: Food Eating and Environment Page: 142-156, 161- 164 Eating and Obesity  Eating and drinking are social activities that incorporate symbolic, moral and cultural meanings  Obesity: an excessive accumulation of body fat, usually defined as a body mass index greater than 30  Eating preferences and habits based on conditioning, customs and culture and environment (climate change)  Surgeon General “obesity is the fastest growing cause of disease and death in America”  Risen over 30 years o 37% (overweight children and adolescence) and 34% (risk of being overweight)  multiple causes o genetic predisposing o culture o diet o in activities  foods industry uses several strategies to maintain their profits o persuading to consume more food, especially high energy dense foods through advertising and outlets o increasing serving sizes, price inducements to order larger sizes o opening markets in transitional and developing countries o substituting agricultural products with efficient artificial foods (margarine for butter) o adding sugar, salts, fats, oils and dyes to enhance flavour, look  explanation o Less active o Income (mcdonalds because its cheap) o Stress- high stress associated with more fatty food intake, less fruits and veggies, no breakfast  Linking eating habits to climate change o Earth is becoming warmer due to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions into atmosphere  Biological Influences on Body Fat level o Sex o Hormonal factors o genetics o fat gene: MC4R: alleged to play a role in regulating food intake and energy balance  associated with higher intakes of total energy, dietary fat, greater long term weight change, diabetes in women Evolutionary perspective  began with hunting and killing for food with weapons and tools fashioned from pieces of volcanic obsidian  genetic make up of contemporary humans remains adapted to a nomadic existence of gathering and hunting  humans are hunter gathers: not fitted to lifestyle and forms of social organization that exsit in todays post agricultural, post industrial societies Hunter Gatherers past and present  lived in bands of 10-50 people with an average band size of 25  temporary shelters near water, food and supplies  settled for months at a time  early hunter gatherers spent less time building shelters and obataining food that most humans after the agricultural revolution  75% of food energy from vegetables 25% hunting animals  energy expenditure: use by body of chemical energy from food and drink or body stores during the processes of metabolism that is dissipated as heat; days total energy expenditure is measured in calories of heat lost o average daily EE for 65kg male is 3.5 megajoules compared to 4.4 of hunters  huntin and fishing done by men  grinding grain and fetching water done by women  reduction in energy expenditure in women may have exceeded that of men; consistent of observations that obesity is generally more common in women then men  natural ecosystems provide a diet of wild foods that is varied and plentiful  protein, mineral and vitamin intake among hunter gatherers would have been above recommended level  capacity to store fat easily was important for survival  less food during winter so ice age hunter gatherers needed to store fat to survive  high energy intake is a risk factor for obesity in humans  low resting metabolic rate is a risk factor for weight gain  Leptin: a hormone produced by adipose cells that inhibits food intake and increases energy expenditure  Relatively low plasma leptin concentrations may play a role in development of obesity in pima Indians (based off study) Agricultural Revolution  Humans lived for the first time in densly populated villages and towns  Sheeps and goats kept in captivity to provide ready of supply of meat  Spread through Europe  Stabilizing influence of settlement and civilization came consequences o Food supplies were more dependent on weather conditions o Diet became less varied and balanced o Malnourished, anaemia and osteoporosis became prevelant o Levels of activity nd energy expenditure decreased o Bowel and respiratory infections increased o Birth rate increased o Social problems related to population density and ownership became prevelant o Psychological and socio economic stress related to population density, property, status and self esteem became significant Industrial Revolution  Life styles changed drastically (electricity, transportation)  Food is now ready in supermarkets (no longer need manual labour) Ecological Model  Adiposity: the fat content of the body, fat content of foods and relationship between the two  Ecological systems theory of Bronfenbrenner o Individual childs genertic environment o Family environment o Larger community o Ecological approach shows the necessity of community scale interventions in addition to an approach based on individuals will power to change their behaviour  Fat and Feeling Fat o Two main subjects of obesity: high fat foods and overweight people o Most western countries proportion of food energy derived from fat is close to 40% o Triglyceride: the main component of dietary fats and oils and the principal form in which fat is stored in the body  Composed of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule  Saturated (S)  Monounsaturated (M)  Polyunsaturated (P) o Cholesterol has been implicated as a casual factor in coronary heart disease o Low density lipoprotein (LDL): bad cholesterol, associated with heart disease o High density lipoprotein (HDL): good cholesterol o Hypercholesterolemia: high level of bad cholesterol in the blood, risk of heart disease o Adipose tissue: tissue in the body in which fat is stored as an energy reserve and which in excess leads to obesity  Toxic environment o Obsesity is seen as consequence of living in an environment that is designed to produce obesity o Contemporary society is said to be obesogenic because it generates too high an equilibrium level of fatness across the whole population relative to average activity levels o Ecological theory based on the fat balance equation:  Rate of change of fat stores in the body = rate of fat intake – rate of fat oxidation o reduction in food energy intake rather than a shift to a lower fat diet Environmental influences on food choices  macro level – consequences of policy, laws and regulations at a societal level  micro level – family or individual level  argued that variety (how many different foods are accessible and available) is a key factor in determining food intake  internal moderators (gender, weight, dietary restraint) do not moderate variety effect  external moderators (particilar properties of food and the eaters perception of situation) affect strength of the variety effect  variety of foods in school environment play a role in childrens food coices  neighbourhoods without grocery stores generally have a reduced access to fresh fruits and veggies  density of fast food restaurants in New York city was found to be a significantly higher in black areas than white areas  people with access to supermarkets have a lower prevalence of obseity  convenience stores have high prevelance of obesity  supermarket development is encouraged in lower income areas by awarding grants and loans to organizations willing to invest in area  eating family meals together, tradition is weakening as families are eating more outside of their homes, more money spent on food outside and fast food  area with worst food choices had many shops selling foods, areas with best food choices had no shops and had more space, wider streets and more trees, parks and greenery Food Promotion and Advertising influences on children  Food advertising o Average of 15 TV commercials for food advertisements promoting high fat, sugar and sodium product o Leading cause of unhealthy consumption o Shows unhealthy eating behaviours (snacking at non meal times) o “Fun and cool”  Advertising targeted at children has an effect on their preference, purchases and consumption  Link between amount of TV viewing and diet, obesity and cholesterol levels (unsure if it is advertising or sedentary nature of television viewing)  A lot of food advertisements to children  Advertised diet is less healthy than recommended  Children enjoy and engage with food promotion  Food promotion influences children’s preferences, purchases and consumption  Greater TV use and more frequency commercial TV viewing were independently associated with positive attitudes towards junk food Key Study: ‘Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behaviour’  Whether tv food advertising is capable of priming an increase in snack food consumption  Predicted that advertising that conveys snacking and fun cues eating behaviour among adults and children and advertising will affect consumption of available food  Children who saw food advertising ate 8.8g more during the 14 minutes of TV viewing  Advertising message had a significant effect on the amount consumed for individual foods Interventions  Individual Level Interventions o To help prevent obesity in children o Asses effectiveness of educational, health promotion and psychological councelling interventions that focused on diet, physical activity and social support which designed to prevent childhood obesity o Low fat diets do no better than low calorie diets in terms of long term weight loss o Both lifestyle and drug interventions are capable of producing modest but clinically significant sustained change in weight with minimal risks  Bariatric Surgery o Reduces the size of the stomach with an implanted device (gastric banding) or by removal of a portion of the stomach or by resecting and re routing the small intestines to a small stomach pouch (gastric bypass surgery) o NHS weigh loss surgery is said to be inconsistent, unethical and completely dependent on geographical location  Community Level Approaches o Diets influenced by food industry that is continually promoting increased demand for unhealthy cheaply manufactured foods o Food industry tactics are similar to those used byt the tabacco industry, supplying misinformation, publication of supposedly conflicting evidence and hiding negative data o Evlution, history and culture are significant contextual determinants of why we eat what we eat and when and how we eat it o Coordinated community approach is often missing for interventions designed to influence childhood obesity o Population or community approach to disease prevention and health promotion has potential to be more effective than individual level approaches Chapter 8: Alcohol and Drinking Page: 168-171, 175 – 187 The Blessing and Curse of Alcohol: past and present attitudes  Belief about dangers of alcohol have been shaped by organizations (temperance societies)  1920-1934: believed that alcoholics can never return to moderate drinking but can only be cured by remaining abstinent for their lives  view on alcohol: ‘all right in moderation, harmful in excess’  powerful influence of international drink companies  potentially expanding markets (India, Nigeria, China and brazil) are being targeted with highly sophisticated western marketing techniques. International Case Study: Alcohol Consumption  british attempts to profit from production and sale of alcohol led to opposite  Gandhi and the nationalist movement campaigned against alcohol as a symbol of colonial oppression and demands for prohibition were associated with the desire for the ritual purity of the Indian nation  Most states permit alcohol, 15-20% of their income from alcohol tax  Majority of Indians abstain from alcohol; 21% of men and 5% of women drink Cause of Alcohol Dependence Theories of problem drinking  Genetic theories o DNA variations possibly associated with the metabolism of alcohol mean that certain individuals are more to develop alcohol problems if they drink o Propose people have an inherited predisposition to develop drinking problems o Runs within families, not enough to prove the existence of genetic influences o From upbringings and imitations o Study on twins and adopted children  Both types of twins grow up in same environment  100% same genes from identical twins, 50% similar fraternal twins  adoption studies examine whether adopted kids grow up to acquire similar drinking habits as their biological parents or their adoptive parents o there may be inheritable differences in the way that alcohol is metabolized so that some people find effects pleasant, some find it unpleasant  Addiction, Disease and Dependence Theories o Individuals who drunk heavily may develop a physiological addiction and psychological dependence which can only be effectively treated by lifelong abstinence o Once addiction is established, victims lose all voluntary control over their drinking  Benjamin Rush and Thomas Trotter believe this to be true 70 years before o Disease theories: the idea that th control of behaviour such as alcohol consumption or eating is a disease based on personal or inherited characteristics that predispose particular individuals to the condition  focused on the at risk individual who has a predispotion to become an alcoholic once they begin to drink  Emphasizes craving and loss of control  Alcohol is only highly addictive for a small number of people  From mid 1970s, theory is being revised and extended to become alcohol dependence syndrome o Alcohol dependence syndrome: a psychophysicological disorder characterized by increased tolerance, withdrawal symptoms following reduced consumption, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to reduce or control drinking  Viewed as a psycho social disorder o Rather than being a disease, alcohol dependence is an arbitrary point that can be chosen on a continuum from the light social drinker to the homeless street drinker  Learning Theories o Mechanisms of conditioning and social learning can explain the development of excessive consumption, and the phenomena of dependence, craving, increased tolerance and withdrawal symptoms o Operant condition: type of learning that occurs when animals are trained to respond in a particular way to stimulus by providing rewards after they make appropriate responses o Gradient of reinforcement: fact that reinforcement which occurs rapidly after the response is much more effective in producing learning than delayed reinforcement o In alcohol drinking, positive reinforcement such as reduce anxiety, may cause strong habit to developing o Addictive behaviours are typically those in which pleasurable effects occur rapidly while unpleasant consequences occur after delay o Classical conditioning: process whereby a response that occurs as a natural reflex to a particular stimulus can be conditioned to occur to a new stimulus o Compensatory conditioned response model: influential model put forward by Siegel to account for the phenomena of addiction such as tolerance, dependence and withdrawal using principles of classical conditioning  Physiological homeostatic mechanism comes into operation to counteract its effect.  For alcohol, homeostatic mechanism activates the nervous system in order to maintain the normal level of activation because it is a depressant  Lack of convincing evidence for this applicability to problem drinking o Social learning theorists argue that classical and operant conditioning provide incomplete explanations of human learning o Self-efficacy: a personality trait consisting of having confidence in ones ability to carry out ones plans successfully. o People with low self efficacy are more likely to imitate undesirable behaviour Box 8.2 Symptoms of alcohol dependence syndrome  Tolerance: a diminished effect of alcohol, usually accompanied by increased consumption  Withdrawal symptoms following reduced consumption  Consumption of larger amounts or for longer time than was intended  Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking  Excessive time spent obtaining, consuming or recovering from the effects of alcohol  Reduction of important activities due to drinking  Continued drinking despite knowing that it is causing or exacerbating a physical or psychological problem Prevention and treatment of alcohol prob
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