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Chapter 16

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PSYC 3110
Kieran O' Doherty

Chapter 16: 366-379 Cognitive Approaches Illness Perceptions  Howard Leventhal (1989)- created the most developed cognitive model of illness o From work on the ompact of dear communication o No matter the level of fear, the message coveyed was effective if a plan of action came withit o Key factor how the treat was represented or understood o Dual processing model was created  Dual processing model- when faced with a threat, a cognitive and emotional representation of the threat is created o End up coping the way they have it represented  Self regulation model- thoughts on illneesss could be organized along four dimensions o Identity- signs, symptoms, and the illness label o Consequence- perceived physical, social and economic consequences of the disease and the felt emotional consequences o Causes- perceived causes of the disease o Time line- perceived tiem frame for the development and duration of the illness threat  Common sense model (CSM)- Lau and Hartman added a fifth dimension for those resistant to treatment o Cure/control- extent to which the illness is responsive to treatment  Illness perception questionnaire (IPQ)- measured the orginal five dimensions o Originally used to investigate relationship of illness representations and work behavioour after a heart attack  Illnss beliefs are formed by information before becoming ill  Revised illness perception questionnaire- created a measure of “illness coherence” and emotional representations of illness o Look at how illness makes sense as a whole o Divided the cure/control dimension into ‘personal control’ and ‘treatment control’  Allowed a distinguishment of perceived control of the illness and of the treatment  Illness representations are not just the patients perspective but also interpersonal and cultural experiences  Highest distress found among women who reported low levels of controllability when their partner reported high controllability Causes of Disease  Perceived cause is one of the central components of Leventhal’s original model  Attribution theory- psychological interest how people explain the onset of disease o People attempt to create causal explanations for events in their world  Especially if they are unexpected  Swartzman (1996)- looked at the character og causal explanations of physical symptoms o Originally discovered 14 categories o Labeled three dimensions  Non physical-physical  Stable-unstable  Controllable-uncontrollable o Four Factors labeled  Stress  Environment  Health related  Behaviour Phenomenological Approaches  Explore participants perspective on the world instead of confirming that of the observer/researcher o Researcher should adopt an open ended qualitative approach to research  Try to understand subjective experience of the patient in their own words  Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis o Developed by Smith 1996 o Human characteristic is a tendency towards self reflection o No structure o Need to describe from the perspective of another o Four su
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