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PSYC 3110 (51)
Chapter 2-3

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PSYC 3110
Kieran O' Doherty

Chapter 2, 3 - Pages (26-39) Population Growth -Total population of the World at 12:10 on July 1 , 2010 was 6853019414, predicted to increase to 9 billion by 2045 an increase of just over 1 percent per year -Most populous region: China -More than 1.3 billion people in 2008 (20 % of all people) -Chinese population grew to enable a large national defence against future enemies -In 1979 china adopted one-child policy -Chinese families smaller in rural areas where the two-child family is preferred norm -Another more populous region: India -Will surpass china in the next few decades, fertility is falling but population will continue to rise, more people will live in poverty -Religions also influence sexual and reproductive practices E.g. RCC Pope Paul VI regulation of birth reinforced the traditional values of the Church by forbidding abortion and artificial contraception -Failure to practice abstinence as the only acceptable method for birthday control in South American and Africa is adding to population growth, poverty and spread of HIV/AIDS -Fertility highest in Sub-Saharan Africa (poorest region in world, max. AIDS, highest # of practicing Roman Catholics) Increasing Life Expectancy -In Britain: 75 years for men & 80 for women -In England: a workingman can expect on average about 10 years of pensioned retirement while a workingwoman can anticipate around 20 years -Life expectancy is said to be increasing 3 months every year in development countries Poverty -Of 6.8 billion people alive 81% are living in developing countries -One million people are living on less than 1 dollar per day (1 in every 7 person) -The United Nations development program defines poverty as a “level of income below that people cannot afford a minimum, nutritionally adequate diet and essential non-food requirements”. -Major impacts of poverty on health area caused by the absence of: -Safe water, environmental sanitation, adequate diet, secures housing, basic education, income generating opportunities, access to medication and health care -Most common health outcomes are infectious diseases, malnutrition and reproductive hazards -Economic growth is the rate of increase in the total production of goods and services within an economy -Growing economy increases employment, stimulates business enterprise and innovation -Gross nation Income (GNI): monetary value of all goods and services produced in a country over a year -Millennium Development Goals including halving poverty rates by 2015, reducing child mortality, decelerating the growth of AIDS and education all children -Health improvements pre-condition for economic growth Inequalities within a country -Chadwick identified many of the determinants of ill health in his studies of public health in Victorian England: poverty, housing, water, sewerage, the environment, safety and food -Inequity due to: -Socio- economic status: people who are higher up the pecking order of wealth; education and status have better health and live longer -Health gradients: wealthier groups always have the best health; poorer groups have the worst health KEY STUDY The Whitehall Studies -Led by Professor Sir Michael Marmot -Investigate social class, psychosocial factors and lifestyle as determinants of disease -Whitehall I study showed a clear gradient in which men employed in the lowest grades were much more likely to die prematurely than men in the highest grades - The Whitehall studies have found that it is the imbalance between demands and control that leads to illness -Combination of high demand and low control contribute to ill health *Control is less when a worker is lower in the hierarchy and so a worker in a lower position is unable to respond effectively if the demands are increased -Other mechanism can buffer the effect of work stress on mental and physical health: social support, effort-reward balance, job security and organizational stability Gender -Medical textbook from the 19 century state: child bearing is essentially necessary to the physical health and long life, the mental happiness, the development of the affections and whole character of women -Women’s health is towards the top of the health agenda, men near the body *Men die earlier t
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