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Chapter 11

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PSYC 3110
Kieran O' Doherty

Chapter 11 – Pg. 246-251, 255-264 What is Health Communication? - Health Communication refers to all interpersonal, organizational or mass communication that concerns health - Health communication can: o Occur in various contexts (Health-care professional- patient relations) o Be applied in a variety of settings (clinics, schools, homes, work) o Use a variety of channels (pamphlets, posters, internet, TV, radio) o Deliver a variety of messages (healthy eating, quit smoking, safe sex) o Be used for a variety of reasons (ex. Risk assessment, disease prevention) - Health communication is important for both providers and consumers of health information. o For the providers, effective health communication is vital in ensuring that the intended message reaches and influence its target audience o For the Consumers, effective health communication can enable them to access information that can help them make sense of their health condition or make them aware of health risks and relevant health services. Communication Theory - Communication is the exchange of information from one entity to another. In order for communication to occurs you will need a sender, receiver, a message and a medium. - Shannon and Weavers model of communication has 5 components: o 1. Source – where the message is coming from o 2. Transmitter – something that encodes the message into signals o 3. Channel – where encoded signals are transmitted o 4. Receiver – something that decodes the signal back into the message o 5. Destination – where the message goes o A sixth component suggested is noise – interference between sender and destination - Simplicity of this model is both a strength and a weakness - Model provides insight into the factors that need to be considered for effective communication. Health-Care Professional-Patient Communication - Good communication can enable patients to relay information about their physical and mental state that can allow early identification of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of their condition. - Enables health care professionals to provides useful health-related information to the patients and to prevent disease and promote health - Patient dissatisfaction, inaccurate diagnosis or understanding of the patients condition, non-compliance or non-adherence to treatment, poor understanding and recall of information, and poor patient health outcomes are some of the dire consequences poor HCP-patient communication can bring. The Deviant Patient’ Perspective - Early studies focused on patient characteristic in their attempt to account for failures in doctor-patient communication. In the patient’s presentations to the doctors, patients were routinely making the real problem and that it was the doctors task to uncover it. - There was a link between patient satisfaction and compliance or adherence to doctor’s orders. The Authoritarian Doctor Perspective - Ways in which doctors use their authority in order to control the doctor-patient interaction - A patient centered style makes use of the patients knowledge and experience through techniques such as silence, listening, and reflection - Doctor-centered style makes use of the doctors knowledge and skill, for example, through asking questions o It was observed that doctors adopted a habitual style that they tended to use with most patients - Major criticism of the doctors traditional working style was that it was characterized by working to rigid agendas, little listening to patients accounts and little open discussion of treatment options and a more Patient Centered approach was called for: o Exploring both the disease and illness experience o Understanding the whole experience o Finding common ground regarding management o Incorporating prevention and health promotion o Enhancing the patient doctor relationship o Being realistic The Interactive Dyad Approach - Focus on HCP-patient communication shifted again - Began looking at the communicative event to which both doctor and patient contribute - Both HCP and patient use language in order to achieve interpersonal objectives such as disclaiming or attributi
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