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PSYC 3300 (15)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes - Methods and History of Gender Research

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3300
Carol Anne Hendry

Chapter 2 Notes: Methods and History of Gender Research The Scientific Method Empiricism: information collected via one of our major senses, usually sight Theory: an abstract generalization that provides an explanation for a set of facts ­ for a theory to be scientific, it must be falsifiable ­ sex is referred to as a subject variable Stimulus or Target variable: the characteristic of something to which people respond Ex: if people are responding to an infant’s sex, sex is the stimulus variable Experimental Method ­ strength: internal validity ­ weakness: external validity Correlational Method ­ strength: external validity ­ weakness: internal validity – cannot determine cause and effect Internal Validity: being confident you are measuring the true cause of the effect External Validity: generalizable to the real world Field Experiments: experimental method is taken into the real world or the field ­ attempt to maximize bot internal and external validity Cross sectional design: when a single time point is used Longitudinal study: measuring the independent variable at one time and the dependent variable later ­ multiple time points in the study ­ help distinguish age or cohort effects Meta analysis: quantifies the results of a group of studies Difficulties in Conducting Research on Gender Experimenter effects: the ways the experimenter, or the person conducting the research, can influence the results of a study Replication: the repeating of the study by different investigators with different measures of the independent variable and the dependent variable ­ helps enhance confidence in finding Self-fulfilling prophecy: the experimenters beliefs influence his or her own behaviour, which then encourages participants to respond in a way that confirms the experimenters beliefs ­ differences between men and women are less likely to be found in the laboratory, where men and women face equal conditions, than in the real world, where they do not ­ when finding that women and men differ on some outcome, one must be careful to determine whether the difference is due to sex, status, gender role, or something else History of the Psychology of Gender 1894-1936: Sex differences in intelligence ­ goal of this time period was to establish that
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