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PSYC 3300 (15)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Notes - Achievement

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PSYC 3300
Carol Anne Hendry

Chapter 6 Notes: Achievement ­ women are more likely to receive bachelors degrees in nursing and elementary education ­ men are more likely to receive degrees in computer science and engineering ­ women less likely to major in STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) ­ men and women equally likely to earn science degree but women tend toward the life sciences whereas men tend toward the physical sciences ­ variety of explanations as to why women do not realize their achievement potential, including ideas that women fear success, lack self-confidence, have lower self-esteem, and are faced with stereotype threat Individual Difference Factors The Achievement Motive ­ achievement motive: a stable personality characteristic that reflects the tendency to strive for success ­ achievement motive measured by people’s responses to scenes from Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) cards o view card and write story about it o mentions of success, striving, challenge and accomplishment would reflect themes of achievement ­ men who scored high on achievement motivation were found to persist longer on tasks and to reach higher levels of achievement (this was not found for women) o may have been due to cards being more directed at and arousing for men ­ women who have a high need for achievement but believe achievement conflicts with their gender role may conceal their achievement o other response is to adopt highly feminine appearance o or to master both roles – high achiever and traditional female wife and mother Fear of Achievement - fear of success: the association of negative consequences with achievement o for women – feeling unfeminine and social rejection ­ 2 requirements for fear of success: 1) the person must perceive achievement as possible 2) the person must associate achievement with negative consequences Self-Confidence ­ possible that women only appear less self-confident than men ­ problem is that women might start believe the opinions they express about themselves (indicated by self-perception and cognitive dissonance theories) ­ it may be that men overestimate their abilities rather than women underestimating ­ major factor that influences sex differences in self-confidence is the nature of the task ­ sex differences in self-confidence seem to be limited to masculine tasks Response to Evaluative Feedback ­ others opinions have a stronger influence on women than men ­ women find feedback to be more informative about their abilities than men Self-Esteem ­ one reason why adolescent females have lower self-esteem than males may be that these girls have less favourable attitudes than boys toward their gender role o another reason may be greater emphasis on popularity and increased contact with the opposite sex Stereotype Threat ­ stereotype threat: the salience of stereotypes about women having less aptitude in traditionally masculine domains, may have a negative impact on women’s performance ­ stereotyped groups preform worse than non-stereotyped groups under conditions of threat ­ research suggests that stereotype threat can be nullified if people are informed of it ­ stereotype threat may interfere with performance by reducing cognitive capacity and/or by increasing anxiety Conceptions of the Self ­ independent self-construal: maintain an independent sense of self that is separate from
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