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PSYC 3350 (43)

Chapter Three cross cult

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PSYC 3350
Saba Safdar

Chapter Three: Enculturation • “cultural learning” is learning not only from others but through others • Socialization- the process by which we learn and internalize the rules and patterns of the society in which we live o Involves learning and mastering societal norms, attitudes, values, and belief systems o Usually refers to processes and mechanisms- what is said to whom and in which contexts. • Enculturation- process by which youngsters learn and adopt the ways and manners of their specific culture o Generally refers to products of socialization process—the subjective underlying principals • Most important socialization and enculturation agent is parents o Siblings, extended family, peers; organizations like church or school are other examples of agents • Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory o Human development is a dynamic, interactive process between individuals and various ecologies that range from proximal, immediate environment to distal o The individual- sex age health o Microsystem- immediate surroundings, such as family, school, peer group, w/ which children directly interact o Mesosystem- linkages between microsystems, such as between school and family o Exosystem-context that indirectly affects children, such a parent’s workplace o Macrosystem- culture, religion, society o Chronosystem- the influence of time and history on the other systems o Children contribute to own development, don’t just absorb cultural info • Developmental niche o Focuses on how the broader macrosystem structures the child’s immediate microsystems o 3 major components: physical and social setting; customs of child care and child rearing; psychology of caregivers • Beatrice and John Whiting “Six Cultures Study” o Systematically examined child rearing and children’s behaviour in varied cultural contexts o Documented how natural environment shaped how households were structured, influencing how parents raised children to fit into particular society o Found: o Demonstrated that variations in natural and cultural environment were linked to variations in child-rearing patterns and this was linked to children’s behaviours and personalities • Economic conditions where child-rearing occurs is important to consider o Areas w/ high rate of infant mortality, parents may concentrate efforts on basic physical needs o LeVine theorized that the caregiving environment reflects a set of goals ordered in importance: (1) physical health and survival, (2) promotion of behaviours that will lead to self-sufficiency (3) behaviours that promote other cultural values, such as prestige o If the basic goals of physical health and survival are taken care of, parents can focus on other goals, such as instilling cultural importance. o Study- Berlin mother- parenting goal to foster autonomy- less face to face interaction with infant o India mother- parenting goal relatedness- more face to face interaction with infant • Differences in parenting goals translates into differences in how parents talk to and play with infants • Parental ethnotheories - parental cultural belief systems o Serve as basis for guiding parenting practices that structure children’s daily lives o By studying parental ethnotheories we see how parents’ cultural belief system motivate and shape what parents think is the “right” way to parent their child. GLOBAL PARENTING STYLES: PROPOSED BY BRAUMIRND • Authoritarian parents expect unquestioned obedience and view the child as needing to be controlled; low on warmth and responsiveness toward children • Permissive parents are warm and nurturing to children; allow children to regulate own lives and provide few firm guidelines • Authoritative parents sensitive to child’s maturity and are firm, fair, and reasonable; express high degree of warmth and affection for children o Typically the most effective parenting style o Found not to be as effective for all ethnic groups (IE) Asian Americans(Where authoritarian may be better) • Uninvolved parents are too absorbed in their own lives to respond appropriately to their children and seem indifferent to them; do not seem committed to caregiving beyond minimal effort; extreme form is neglect • Co-sleeping has been suggested by some paediatricians to lead to unhealthy reliance of child on parent o Sleeping alone thought to foster independence and autonomy o Few studies support this o Americans tend to use ‘security objects’ like blankets or toys at bedtime • Sleeping arrangements can be based on economic as well as cultural reasons o Families making
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