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PSYC 3350 (43)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Culture and Developmental Processes.doc

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PSYC 3350
Saba Safdar

Chapter 4 Culture and Developmental ProcessesCulture and Temperament the process of socialization starts early The characteristics we are born with determine to some extent how our caregivers react and interact with us This initiates the life long process of socializationTraditional KnowledgeTemperament is a biologically based style of interacting with the world that exists from birth Thomas and Chess 77 describe 3 major categories of temperamentoEasy temperament regular adaptable mildly intense style of behavior that is positive and responsiveoDifficult temperament intense irregular withdrawing style that is marked by negative moodsoSlow to Warm Up infants need time to make transitions in activity and experiences Withdraw initially when given time they will adapt and react positively Goodness of Fit interaction of a childs temperament with that of the parentsCross Cultural Studies on TemperamentIf children of other cultures have different temperaments at birth they will respond to the environment differently As well they will evoke responses from the environment and caregivers that are different from what Americans would expectIt was found that Chinese babies were significantly less active less irritable and less vocal than American and Irish Infants It is argued that thee is a wellestablished connection between the mother during pregnancy especially high blood pressure and the irritability of the infantCross Cultural Studies Using the Neonatal Behaviour AssessmentMost cross cultural research has been conducted using this scale Neonatal Behaviour Assessment Scale Assesses babies behavior in first 30 days of life Indicates temperamental characteristics Studies have been conducted on infants in high altitudes Andes and babies in low altitudes Lima Peru It was found that those who grew up in high altitudes were fussier This could be attributed to the harsh living conditions in high altitudesThese studies illuminate how differences in temperament across cultures must be considered in relation to the cultural practices of infant caregiving cultural goals for infant behaviours and cultural ideas on the capabilities of infants Temperament and Learning CultureInteraction between parents responses and infant temperament is a key to understand the development of culture and socialization processesTemperament may serve as a baseline biological predisposition of the infant that allows this type of learning to occur
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