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PSYC 3380 Chapter Notes -Time Series, Regression Analysis, Simple Random Sample

Course Code
PSYC 3380
Jeffrey Spence

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Week One 1/16/2013 2:24:00 PM
Chapter One pp. 3-13
statistics reform: incorporates effect size estimation, the reporting of
confidence intervals, and synthesis of results from replications in a meta-
some critical problems with behavioral science research are:
- most articles published in our research literature are never cited by other
authors and thus, by definition, have little or no impact on the field
- there are problems with the quality of many published studies in terms of
their actual scientific contribution, how the data were analyzed, or how the
results were interpreted
- there is a disconnect across many behavioral science disciplines between
the conduct of research on the one hand and the application of those results
on the other
Chapter Two pp. 15-35
there are three healthy aspects of the research tradition in the behavioral
anchor to reality
- sometimes students new to the behavioral sciences are surprised at the
prominent role accorded to research in academic programs
- there are some potential advantages to possessing the ability to think
critically about how evidence is collected and evaluated that is afforded by a
research-based education (such as having a skeptical attitude about a
proposed medical treatment, the need for evidence reduces extreme claims
made by practitioners, having realistic beliefs)
rise of meta-analysis and meta-analytic thinking
- meta-analysis: a set of statistical techniques for summarizing results
collected across different studies in the same general area; a type of
secondary analysis where findings from primary studies are the unit of
analysis; the central tendency and variability of effect sizes are more
relevant than the statistical significance of each individual study
- meta-analytic thinking includes: reporting of results should be made so
that they can easily be incorporated into a future meta-analysis (including
the reporting of sufficient summary statistics so that effect sizes can be

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calculated), a researcher should view their own individual study as making at
best a modest contribution to a research literature, an accurate appreciation
of the results of previous studies is essential (especially in terms of effect
sizes), and retrospective interpretation of new results (once collected) are
called for via direct comparison with previous effect sizes
waxed exceeding mighty
- information explosion is fueled by computer technology which has made
possible electronic publication and distribution over the internet
- open-access journals: refereed electronic journals that can be accessed
without cost and are generally free of many copyright and licensing
- self-archiving research repositories: electronic databases where works by
researchers in a common area are stored for later access by others
- information fatigue: refers to the problem of managing an exponentially
growing amount of information (for example, the total number of scientific
journals is now so great that most libraries are unable to physically store the
printed versions of them all, much less afford the total cost of institutional
- impact factor: a descriptive, quantitative measure of overall journal
quality; it is a bibliometric index published annually by the Institute for
Scientific Information (ISI) which analyzes citations in over 14, 000 scholarly
journals it reflects the number of times the typical article in a journal has
been cited in scientific literature; the IF is subject to bias, it is based on
mainly English language scientific journals (which only consist of about one
quarter of peer-reviewed journals worldwide), online availability of articles
(those with full-text availability are cited more often than those available on
a more restricted basis), the IF is computed for a whole journal, but citations
generally refer to articles, not journals (thus it is possible that a relatively
small number of frequently cited articles are responsible for most of the
value of IF for a whole journal), the tendency for authors to cite their own
publications can inflate IF; a more controversial use of the IF is as a
measure of the quality of work of individual scholars or entire academic
there are four negative aspects to our research literature:
1. skewness and waste

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- the rejection rate for journals ranges from 80-90%
- a typical journal article receives few citations and has relatively few
interested readers
- only a small number of published articles are both widely read and cited
(the 80/20 rule: about 20% of published articles generate about 80% of the
- the uneven distribution of publications and citations in science supports the
elite in the scientific realm through new discoveries or the development of
new paradigms (a shared set of theoretical structures, methods, and
definitions that supports the essential activity of puzzle solving, the posing
and working out of problems under the paradigm)
2. wide gap between research and policy or practice
- example: the formation of education policy is infrequently informed by the
results of education research
- specifically within education, there are cases where education research
follows policies (such as learning disabilities) in the U.S. a learning
disability is defined in federal law based on an IQ-achievement discrepancy
model, in which children are identified as learning disabled when their IQ
scores are in the normal range but their scores on scholastic achievement
tests are much lower they are entitled to remedial services under federal
law but children who have a low IQ score and low achievement test score
are considered slow learners and are not entitled to remedial services
because it is believed that they will not benefit from it there is little
evidence that IQ scores and achievement test scores measure two different
3. lack of relevance for practitioners
- researchers can communicate poorly with practitioners when reporting
their findings using language that is pedantic or unnecessarily technical
(using excessively complicated statistical techniques and the description of
results solely in terms of their statistical significance)
- clinical psychology practitioners have said that research topics are
sometimes too narrow or specific to be of much practical value
4. incorrect statistical results
- some of the errors in reported statistical results was due to typographical
errors in printed values of test statistics and some can be due to errors in
the reporting of summary statistics
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