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Chapter 11

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 11

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3390
Mary Manson

Chapter 11 12/4/2012 3:34:00 PM Clinical Features of Personality Disorders - Formerly known by psychodynamic theorists as character disorders - To diagnose a personality disorder the persons enduring pattern of behaviour must be pervasive and inflexible as well as astable and of long duration and must cause clinically signigicant distress or impairment in functioning and be manifested in at least two of the following areas: cognition; affectivity, interpersonal functioning, or impulse control - Epidemiological studies on the prevalence of personality disorders in Canada are few - Around 13 percent of people suffer from a personality disorder at some point in their lives Categories of Perosnality Disorders - Cluster A: paranois, schizoid, schizotypal - Cluster B: histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial and borderline - Cluster C: avoidant, dependent, obsessive-complusive - Critera for paranoid personality disorder: evidence of pervasive distrust or suspiciousness of others present in at least four of the following ways: pervasive suspiciousness of being deceived, harmed or exploited/unjustified doubts about loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates/reluctance to confide in others because of doubts of loyalty or trustworthiness/hidden demeaning or threatening meanings read into benign remarks or events/bears grudges, does not forgive insults, injuries or slights/angry reactions to perceived attacks on their character or rep/recurrent suspicions regarding fidelity of spouse or partner and b. does not occur exclusively during course of schizophrenia, mood disorder with psychotic features or other psychotic disorder - Some gave argued for partial genetic transmission that may link the disorder to schizophrenia - Transmission might occur through the heredibility of high levels of antagonism and neuroticism - Criteria for schizoid personality disorder: evidence of a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings shown in atleast four of: neither desires nor enjoys close relationships/chooses solitary activities/little interest in sex/takes pleasure in few or no activities/lacks close friends/appears indifferent to praise or criticism/emotional coldness, detachment or flat affect and b. does not occur exclusively during course of schizophrenia, mood disorder with psychotic features, or other psychotic disorders or pervasive development disorder - Schizotypal personality disorder criteria: pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with,, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and behavioural eccentricities as indicated by atleast 5 of: ideas of reference/odd beliefs or magical thinking/unusual perceptual experiences/odd thinking and speech/suspiciousness or paranoid ideation/inappropriate or constricted affect/behaviour or appearance that is odd, eccentric or peculiar/lack of close friends or confidants/excessive social anxiety that deos not diminish with familiarity and b. not related to other disorders - Moderately heredible, affects 3.3 percent of population and there is a gentic and biological association with schizophrenia - Criteria for histrionic personality disorder: pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking including atleast 5 of: discomfort in situations where they are not the centre of attention/inappropriate sexually seductive behaviour/displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions/consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to self/excess impressionistic style of speech/overly suggestible/self dramatization and exaggerated expressions of emotion/considers relationships to be more intimate than they are - 2-3% are effected, - antisocial and histrionic disorder are linked because of common personality traits; neutoticism and extroversion; two traits kown to have a partial genetic basis - criteria for narcissistic personality disorder: pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, lack of empathy, and at least 5 of: grandiose sense of self importance/preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance and beauty/belief that they are special and unique/excessive need for admiration/sense of entitlement/tendency to be interpersonally exploitative/lacks empathy/envious of others or believes that others are envious of them/arrogant, haughty behaviours and attitudes - someone with antisocial personality disorder is continually violate and shows disregard for the rights of others through deceitful, aggressive or antisocial behaviour without remorse or loyalty - this pattern of behaviour must have been occurring since age of 15 and before that the person must have had conduct disorder - borderline personality disorder shows a pattern of behaviour characterized by impulsivity, and instability in interpersonal relationships, self image and moods - suicide attempts are frequent as well as gambling sprees and reckless driving - self mutilation is characteristic as well as analgesia (absence of the experience of pain in the presence of a theoretically painful stimulus - criteria are: pervaside pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self image and affects and marked impulsivity and alteast 5 of: frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment/pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships/identity disturbance characterized by persistent unstable self image or sense of self/impulsivity in two potentially self damaging areas/recurrent suicidal behaviour, gestures or self mutilating behaviour/affective instability due to
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