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Chapter 15

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 15

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3390
Mary Manson

Chapter 15 12/7/2012 10:39:00 AM Brain Impairment in Adults - Most of the disorders to be considered in this section are called organic mental disorders - functional mental disorders are brain disorders that wre considered not to have an organic basis; they were treated by psychologists - these terms were dropped and the disorders are now refered to as delirium, dementia and amnestic and other cognitive disorders - damage or destruction of brain tissue may involve only limited behavioural deficits or a wide range of psychological impairments, depending on the nature, location or extent of neural damage; the premorbid competence and personality of the individual; the individuals life situation; and the amount of time since the first appearance of the condition - impairments associated with brain disorders: memory impairment/orientation impairment/learning, comprehension and judgment impairment/emotional control or modulation impairment/emotional blunting impairment/initiation of behaviour impairment/controls over matters of propriety and ethical conduct impairment/reception and expressive communication impairment/visuospatial ability impairment Delirium - acute confusional state that lies between normal wakefulness and stupor or coma - disturbance in level of consciousness and information processing capcities are impaired; affecting attention, perception, memory and thinking - hallucinations and delusions are common as well as psychomotor activity like agitation and disturbed sleep cycle - criteria for delirium: disturbance of consciousness/change in cognition/disturbance develops over a short period of time and tends to fluctuate over the course of the day - elderly are particularily at risk especially after surgery and children are also at high risk because their brains are not fully developed—ranges from 5 to 40% of hospitalized patients - could result from head injury or infection, drug intoxication or withdrawal, or toxicity from meds - most cases are reversible, except when the delirium is caused by a terminal illness or severe brain trauma; treatment involves meds, environmental manipulations and family support - neuroleptics (which also treat schizo) are used and if delirium was caused by alc or drug withdrawal then benzodiazepines are used - continuum of level of consciousness: alert awake; delirium; stupor; coma - Dementia criteria: development of multiple cognitive deficits manifested by: memory impairment/aphasia/apraxia/agnosia/disturbance in executive functioning and the cognitive deficits cause significant impairment in functioning and represent a decline from previous functioning and the onset of the disorder is gradual and ther is continuing cognitive decline - Atleast 50 different disorders are known to cause dementia including huntingtons, parkinsons; strokes, certain infectious diseases like syphilis, meningitis and AIDS; intracranial tumours, certain dietary deficiencies; severe or repeated head injury; hypoxia, and the ingestion or inhalation of toxic substances such as lead or mercury - Alzheimers disease is the most common cause of dementia - Huntingtons is caused by an autosomal dominant gene on chromosome 3; this means that a person who has a parent with the disease has a 50 percent change of developing the disease themselves - Distribution of dementia by probable cause: 55% alzheimers, 14% stroke, 12% multiple causes, 7% parkinsons, 4% brain injury, 5%
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