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Abnormal Psychology.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3390
Mary Manson

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1: Abnormal Psychology: An Overview - Family aggregation, whether a disorder runs in families. - About 20 percent of Canadians will suffer from a mental disorder at some point in their lives, with anxiety disorders being especially common. - WHAT DO WE MEAN BY ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR? - Double- blind study; neither the participants nor the experimenter who was working with the participants knew who got the genuine magnets. - The Elements of Abnormality -Suffering -Maladaptive behaviours -Deviancy; -Violation of the standards of society -Social discomfort Irrationality and unpredictability - At the most fundamental level, classification systems provide us with a nomenclature ( a naming system) and enable us to structure information in a more helpful manner. - Disadvantages of Classification -Stigma -Stereotyping -labelling - Symptom: A symptom is a single indicator of a problem. It can involve affect ( e. g., sad mood, anxiousness), behaviour ( problems sleeping, lethargy), or cognition ( excessive worry, suicidal thoughts). -Syndrome: A syndrome is a group or cluster of symptoms that all occur together. For example, sad or depressed mood, problems sleeping, concentration problems, weight loss, and suicidal thinking are all symptoms that reflect the syndrome of depression. Note that in the case of depression, depression can be a symptom ( when it refers to depressed mood). It is also the name of the syndrome - DSM- IV Definition of Mental Disorders • Associated with distress or disability ( i. e., impairment in one or more important areas of functioning) • Not simply a predictable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event ( e. g., the death of a loved one) • Considered to reflect behavioural, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual - Wakefield’s definition A mental disorder is a mental condition that • causes significant distress or disability, • is not merely an expectable response to a particular event, and • is a manifestation of a mental dysfunction. - Culture Specific Disorders o Taijin kyofusho. This syndrome, which is a form of anxiety disorder ( see Chapter 6), is quite prevalent in Japan. It involves a marked fear that one’s body, body parts, or body functions may offend or embarrass others or make them feel uncomfortable. Often, people with this disor-der are afraid of blushing or fear upsetting others by their gaze, facial expression, or body odour o some individuals of Latino- Caribbean and Latin Mediterranean origin is ataque de nervios; often triggered by a stressful event like divorce or loss of a loved one, include crying, trembling, un-controllable screaming, and a general feeling of being out of control. Sometimes the person may become aggressive physically or verbally. In other cases, the per-son may faint or experience something that looks like a seizure. Once the ataque is over, the person may quickly return to normal and have no memory of what happened. -HOW COMMON ARE MENTAL DISORDERS? - it is generally found that women with depression outnumber men with depression by a ratio of about 2: 1 - Epidemiology is the study of the distribution of diseases, disorders, or health- related behaviours in a given population. - Prevalence refers to the number of active cases in a population during any given period of time. - Point prevalence refers to the estimated proportion of actual, active cases of the disorder in a given population at any instant in time. - One-year prevalence figure, we would count everyone who suffered from depression at any time during the whole year. - We might also wish to get an estimate of how many people had suffered from a particular disorder at any time in their lives ( even if they are now recovered). This would provide us with a lifetime prevalence estimate. - Incidence; This refers to the number of new cases that occur over a given period of time ( typically one year). Incidence figures are typically lower than prevalence fig-ures because they exclude already existing cases. - In Canada, the best available data come from Statis-tics Canada’s Canadian Community Health Survey ( CCHS)– Mental Health and Well- Being. The survey was conducted in 2002 with 36 984 respondents from across all provinces, aged 15 and over, and involved direct and for-mal diagnostic assessment of participants. - Comorbidity is the term used to describe the presence of two or more disorders in the same person. Comorbidity seems to be especially high in people who have severe forms of mental disorders. In the NCS– R study, half of the people with a disorder that was rated as serious on a scale of severity ( mild, moderate, serious) also had two or more additional disorders - RESEARCH APPROACHES IN ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY- - Acute ( short in duration) or chronic ( more long- lasting) - Transcranial magnetic stimulation ( TMS), which generates a magnetic field on the surface of the head, we can stimulate underly-ing brain tissue - Comparison group ( sometimes called a control group). This is a group of people who do not exhibit the disorder being studied but who are comparable in all other major respects to the criterion group ( i. e., people with the disorder). By “ comparable” we might mean that the two groups are similar in age, number of males and females, education level, and similar demographic kinds of variables. - Unlike a true experimental design ( described below), observational research does not in- volve any manipulation of variables. Instead, the re-searcher selects groups of interest - In observational research, data are collected from two different samples or groups and then compared. ( B) In experimental research, participants are assessed at baseline and then randomly assigned to different groups ( e. g., a treatment and a control condition). After the experiment or treatment is completed, data collected from the two different groups are then compared. - Scientists control all factors except one— one that could have an effect on a variable or outcome of interest; then they actively manipulate that one factor. This factor is referred to as the independent variable. If the outcome of interest, called the dependent variable, is observed to change as the manipulated factor is changed, that variable can be regarded as a cause of the outcome - Single- case research designs. A central feature of these designs is that the same subject is studied over time. Behaviour or performance at one point in time can then be compared to behaviour or performance at a later time, after a specific intervention or treatment has been introduced. - ABAB design. The different letters refer to different phases of the intervention. The first A phase serves as a baseline condition. Here we simply collect data on or from the subject. Then, in the first B phase, we introduce our treatment. Perhaps the subject’s behaviour changes in some way. - Kris was a 19- year- old female who was severely retarded. Since the age of 3, she had been pulling her hair out. This disorder is called trichotillomania - Animal Research - Analogue studies; in which we study not the real thing but some approximation to it). Analogue studies can also involve humans - CHAPTER SUMMARY - Encountering instances of abnormal behaviour is a common experience for all of us. This is not surprising, given the high prevalence of many forms of mental disorder • A precise definition of “ abnormality” is still elusive. Elements that can be helpful in considering whether something is abnormal include suffering, maladap-tiveness, deviancy, violations of society’s standards, causing discomfort in others, irrationality, and unpredictability. • Wakefield’s notion of “ harmful dysfunction” is a helpful step forward but still fails to provide a fully adequate definition of mental disorder. It is nonetheless a good working definition. CHAPTER 2 KEY TERMS - asylums: sanctuaries or places of refuge meant solely for the care of the th mentally ill, after 16 century - behavioural perspective: is organized around a central theme: the role of learning in human behaviour. - Behaviourism: Watson thus changed the focus of psychology to the study of overt behaviour rather than the study of theoretical mentalistic constructs - classical conditioning: a form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus that naturally elicits an unconditioned behaviour. - Deinstitutionalization: providing more integrated and humane treatment than was available in the “ isolated” environment of the psychiatric hospital. Large numbers of psychiatric hospitals were closed. This movement, referred to as deinstitutionalization, was based on the idea that psychiatric patients would benefit from the opportunity to lead more “ normal” lives in the community, while relying on general hospitals for short- term care for their mental health problems. - Insanity: the philosophy of treatment involved the belief that the patients needed to choose rationality over insanity. - lycanthropy: Isolated rural areas were also afflicted with outbreaks of lycanthropy— a condition in which people believed themselves to be possessed by wolves and imitated their behaviour. - mass madness: the widespread occurrence of group behaviour disorders that were apparently cases of hysteria. - mental hygiene movement: mental hygiene movement, which advocated a method of treatment that focused almost exclusively on the physical well- being of hospitalized mental patients; Dorothy Dix - Moral management: Moral management was a wide- ranging method of treatment that focused on a patient’s social, individual, and occupational needs. This approach, which stemmed largely from the work of Pinel and Tuke; humanitarian reform - Nancy School: hysteria and hypnosis; hypothesis was based on two lines of evidence: ( 1) The phenomena observed in hysteria— such as paralysis of an arm, inability to hear, and anesthetic areas in which an individual could be stuck with a pin with-out feeling pain ( all of which occurred when there was apparently nothing organically wrong)— could be pro-duced in normal subjects by means of hypnosis. ( 2) The same symptoms also could be removed by means of hypnosis. Thus it seemed likely that hysteria was a sort of self-hypnosis. - operant conditioning: behaviour is shaped when something reinforces a particular activity of an organism - Tarantism: a disorder that included an uncontrollable impulse to dance that was often attributed to the bite of the southern European tarantula or wolf spider. This dancing mania later spread to Germany and the rest of Europe, where it was known as Saint Vitus dance. CHAPTER 3 - adoption method: the biological parents of individuals who have a given dis- order ( and who were adopted away shortly after birth) are compared with the biological parents of individuals with-out the disorder ( who also were adopted away shortly after birth) to determine their rates of disorder. If there is a genetic influence, one expects to find higher rates of the disorder in the biological relatives of those with the disor-der than in those without the disorder. - association studies: start with a large group of individuals, both with and without a given disorder. Researchers then compare the frequencies of certain genetic markers that are known to be located on particular chromosomes (blood type, etc) - attachment theory: emphasizes the importance of early experience, especially early experience with attachment relationships, as laying the foundation for later functioning throughout child-hood, adolescence, and adulthood. He stressed the importance of the quality of parental care to the development of secure attachments, but he also saw the infants as playing a more active role in shaping the course of their own development than had most of the earlier theorists - Attributions: simply the process of assigning causes to things that happen. We may attribute behaviour to external events such as rewards or punishments (“ He did it for the money”) - biopsychosocial viewpoint: acknowledges that biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors all interact and play a role in psychopathology and treatment. - chromosomes ( p. 71): chain-like structures within a cell nucleus that contain the genes. - cognitive- behavioural perspective: focuses on how thoughts and information processing can become distorted and lead to maladaptive emotions and behaviour. One central construct for this perspective is the concept of a schema, adapted from cognitive psychology by Aaron Beck - concordance rate: the percentage of twins sharing the disorder or trait— to be 100 percent. - contributory cause: ( e. g., cause X) is one that increases the probability of the development of a disorder ( e. g., disorder Y) but is neither necessary nor sufficient for the disorder to occur. Or, more generally, if X occurs, then the probability of Y increases. For example, parental rejection could increase the probability that a child will later have difficulty in handling close personal relationships or could increase the probability that being rejected in a relationship in adulthood will precipitate depression. - Cortisol: mobilizes the body to deal with stress. - developmental psychopathology: focuses on determining what is abnormal at any point in development by comparing and contrasting it with the normal and expected changes that occur in the course of development - developmental systems approach: This approach acknowledges not only that genetic activity influences neural activity, which in turn influences behaviour, which in turn influences the environment, but also that these influences are bidirectional. - diathesis– stress model: Many psychological disorders are believed to develop as the result of some kind of stressor operating on a person who has a diathesis or vulnerability for that disorder. - ego- defence mechanisms: discharge or soothe anxiety, but they do so by helping a person push painful ideas out of consciousness ( such aswhenwe“ forget” a dental appointment) - ego psychology: psychopathology develops when the ego does not function adequately to control or delay impulse gratification or does not make adequate use of defence mechanisms when faced with internal conflicts. - Electra complex: the female counterpart of the Oedipus complex and also draws its name from a Greek tragedy. It is based on the view that each girl desires to possess her father and to replace her mother. - Etiology: causal pattern, of abnormal behaviour - Extinction: conditioning response gradually decreases with time - Family history ( or pedigree) method: requires that an investigator observe samples of relatives of each proband or index case ( the subject, or carrier, of the trait or disorder in question) to see whether the incidence increases in proportion to the degree of hereditary relationship. - genotype– environment correlation: the genotypic vulnerability present at birth does not exert its effect on the phenotype until much later in life. In many other cases, the genotype may shape the environmental experiences a child has, thus affecting the phenotype in yet another very important way. For example, a child who is genetically predisposed to aggressive behaviour may be rejected by his or her peers in early grades because of the aggressive behaviour. Such rejection may lead the child to go on to associate with similarly aggressive and delinquent peers in later grades, leading to an increased likelihood of developing a full-blown pattern of delinquency in adolescence. When the genotype shapes the environmental experiences a child has in this way… - genotype– environment interaction: people with different genotypes may be differentially sensitive or susceptible to their environments - Hormones: chemical messengers secreted by a set of endocrine glands in our bodies. - interpersonal perspective: much of what we are is a product of our relationships with others. It is logical to expect that much of psychopathology reflects this fact— that psychopathology is rooted in the unfortunate tendencies we have developed while dealing with our interpersonal environment - intrapsychic conflicts: Freud believed that the interplay of id, ego, and super-ego is of crucial significance in determining behaviour. Often inner mental conflicts arise because the three sub-systems are striving for different goals. If unresolved, these intrapsychic conflicts lead to mental disorder. - linkage analysis: studies of psychological disorders capitalize on several currently known locations on chro-mosomes of genes for other inherited physical character-istics or biological processes ( such as eye colour, blood group, etc.). - necessary cause: ( e. g., cause X) is a condition that must exist for a disorder ( e. g., disorder Y) to occur. For example, general paresis ( Y)— a degenerative brain disorder— cannot develop unless a person has previously contracted syphilis ( X). - neurotransmitters: chemical substances that are released into the synapse by the presynaptic neuron when a nerve impulse occurs - object- relations theory: focus on individuals’ interactions with real and imagined other people ( external and inter-nal objects) and on the relationships that people experience between their external and internal objects - pituitary gland: pituitary gland ( see Figure 3.4), which is the master gland of the body, producing a variety of hormones that regulate or control the other endocrine glands. One particularly important set of interactions occurs in the hypothalamic- pituitary- adrenal- cortical axis; CRH - pleasure principle ( p. 80): The id operates on the pleasure principle, engaging in completely selfish and pleasure- oriented behaviour, concerned with only immediate gratification - Primary process thinking: Although the id can generate mental images and wish-fulfilling fantasies, referred to as primary process thinking, it cannot undertake the realistic actions needed to meet instinctual demands. - protective factors: The ego’s adaptive measures are referred to as secondary process thinking, and the ego operates on the reality principle. - Resilience: Protective factors most often, but not always, lead to resilience— the ability to adapt successfully to even very difficult circumstances. - Schema: an underlying representation of knowledge that guides the current processing of information and often leads to distortions in attention, memory, and comprehension. - secondary process thinking: The ego’s adaptive measures are referred to as secondary process thinking, and the ego operates on the reality principle. - spontaneous recovery: This gradual process, known as extinction, should not be confused with the idea of unlearning, because we know that the response may return at some future point in time ( a phenomenon Pavlov called spontaneous recovery). - sufficient cause: ( e. g., cause X) of a disorder is a con-dition that guarantees the occurrence of a disorder ( e. g., disorder Y). - synapse: site of communication between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron is the synapse— a tiny fluid- filled space between neurons. - Temperament: refers to a child’s reactivity and characteris-tic ways of self- regulation. - twin method: is the second approach used to study genetic influences on abnormal behaviour. Identical ( monozygotic) twins share the same genetic endowment because they develop from a single zygote, or fertilized egg. CHAPTER 4 - actuarial procedures: Computer- based MMPI interpretation systems typically employ powerful actuarial procedures. In such systems, de- scriptions of the actual behaviour or other established characteristics of many subjects with particular patterns of test scores have been stored in the computer. - computerized axial tomography ( CAT scan): Radiological technology, such as computerized axial tomography, known in brief as the CAT scan, is one of these specialized techniques. Through the use of X- rays, a CAT scan reveals images of parts of the brain that might be diseased. - Dysrhythmia: When an EEG reveals a dysrhythmia ( irregular pattern) in the brain’s electrical activity ( e. g., adult males with ADHD or adult hyperactivity disorder show abnormal brain activity - electroencephalogram ( EEG): assess brain wave pat-terns in awake and sleeping states. An EEG is a graphical record of the brain’s electrical activity. It is obtained by placing electrodes on the scalp and amplifying the minute brain wave impulses from various brain areas; these amplified impulses drive oscillating pens whose deviations are traced on a strip of paper moving at a constant speed. - Episodic: Episodic and recurrent are used to describe unstable disorder patterns that tend to come and go, as with some mood and schizophrenic conditions. - functional MRI ( fMRI): fMRI measures changes in local oxygenation ( i. e., blood flow) of specific areas of brain tissue that in turn depend on neuronal activity in those specific regions - magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI): replacing CAT scans; MRI involves the precise measurement of variations in magnetic fields that are caused by the varying amounts of water content of organs and parts of organs. - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ( MMPI): most widely used personality test, used for clearance, etc. - neuropsychological assessment: which involves the use of various testing devices to measure a person’s cognitive, perceptual, and motor performance as clues to the extent and location of brain damage - positron emission tomography ( PET scan): allows for an appraisal of how an organ is functioning. The PET scan provides metabolic portraits by tracking natural
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