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Chapter

Abnormal Psychology (Psyc 3390) Chapter Summaries- Ch 1-18

189 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3390
Professor
Mary Manson

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Abnormal Psychology Chapter Summaries Chapter 2 Historical and Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behaviour Demonology GodsMagic Many religions believed in demonic possession Exorcism was often the form of removing those demons from a person Hippocrates Considered the father of modern medicine Did not believe in demons Classified all mental disorders into 3 categories Mania Melancholia Phrenitis brain fever Four elements of the material world Earth Air Fire Water Four elements combined to form four essential fluids of the body Blood sanguis Phlegm Blie choler Black bile melancholer Considered dreams to be important in understanding a patients personality Early philosophical Conceptions Plato stated that people who commit a crime that are afflicated with a disease should only pay for the damage and not be punished for the crimeHysteria Conversion Disorder in DSMIVTR Can be dated back to 1900 BCE in ancient egypt Was theorized to be caused by wandering of the uterus until Willis 16211675 theorized that it resulted from a disorder of the brain Melancholia Also known as Depression Abnormality during the middle ages First mental hospital was established in Baghdad in 792 CE Mass Madness The widespread occurrence of group behavior disorders that were apparently cases of hysteria Tarantism Uncontrollable urge to dance caused by being bitten by a tarantula or wolf spider This later spread to the rest of the world and was known as Saint Vitus dance Lycanthropy A condition in which people believed themselves to be possessed by wolves and imitated their behavior Exorcism and Witchcraft Exorcism was performed by the gentle laying on of the hands Physical possession was known as mad Spiritual possession was known as witch craft Toward Humanitarian Approches Johann Weyer wrote a book called The Deception of Demons which was a stepbystep rebuttal of The Hammerer of Witches a witch hunting guide book His book showed how most people who were being tortured burned and killed because they were witches were actually really sick in the mind or body His work was banned from the church and he was scorned by his peers The establishment of early Asylums and Shrines Asylumssanctuaries or places of refuge Many of these were not pleasant places but just storage places for the insane The people lived and died amid incredible filth and cruelty The first Asylum was established in Spain in 1409 the Valencia mental hospital Many hospitals up until the early 1700s treated their patients as nonhumans The philosophy of treatment involved the belief that the patients needed to choose rationality over insanity Humanitarian Reform Pinels Experiment In 1792 Pinel was given the chance to test his theory that mental patients should be treated with kindness and consideration Chains were removed and patients were put into clean well ventilated sunny rooms and given the chance to exercise All harsh treatments were stopped The experiment was a great success Rendering even the most furious more tractableHe had also issued orders forbidding the staff from beating patients Tukes work in England About the same time as Pinel William Tuke established a pleasant country house where mental patients lived worked and rested in a kindly religious atmosphere In 1841 Hitch introduced trained nurses into the wards and put trained supervisors at the head of the nursing staff these innovations were quite revolutionary at the time This changed the public attitudes toward the mentally disturbed Moral Management in North America Moral management moral being wellbeing or morale This was wide ranging method of treatment that focused on a patients social individual and occupational needs This achieved a high degree of effectives without the use of antipsychotic drugs thThese techniques were eventually abandoned by the later part of the 19 century for many different reasons One reason was due to the rise in the mental hygiene movement and due to the advances in biomedical science Mental Hygiene Movement Advocated a method of treatment that focused almost exclusively on the physical wellbeing of a hospitalized mental patient The patients received no help for their mental problems Dix and the mental hygiene movement Dorothea Dix 18021887 The champion of the poor and forgotten people in prisons and mental institutions Raised awareness of the deplorable conditions for the jailed and mentally ill from 18411881 Credited for establishing 32 mental hospitals The military and the mentally ill The first medical treatment for mental disorder due to war was started by the Confederate Army in the American Civil War Mental Hospital Care in the Twentieth Century Deinstituonalization The movement based on the idea that psychiatric patients would benefit from the opportunity to lead more normal lives in the community while relying on general hospitals for shortterm care for their mental health problems This may have caused more problems for psychologically disturbed persons and for many communities The Eugenic Movement During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the eugenics movement gained popularity throughout Canada and the US The movement based on the belief that crimes STDs unwanted pregnancies and other social problems were largely a result of mental retardation and other forms of psychopathology It was believed that these disorders were primarily hereditary This lead to sterilization of people deemed mentally defective 1928Alberta passed a Sexual Sterilization Act and began sterilizing people This act was later strengthened so that it was not necessary to obtain consent from the person or from his or her parents A similar act was then passed in BC in 1933Mental Hospital Care in the Twentieth Century Begins with continued period of growth in asylumso House mainly severe disorders Lengthy hospital stays with little effective treatmento Harsh punitive and often inhumane treatment 1946 Mary Jane Ward publishes The Snake Pit calls attention to patients plight and need for community careInfluences need for reform in 50s and 60s Movement enhanced by scientific advances in latter half of century and development of effective medications o Lithium for manic depressive disorderso Phenothiazines for schizophreniath Society comes full circle by late 20 century mental hospitals close and return patients to community in international movement called deinstitutionalization which was based on the following ideas o Community based care day treatment hospitals and outreach programs
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