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Chapter 8-1

CHAPTER 8-1.docx

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PSYC 3390

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CHAPTER 8 NOTES- COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Pages: 283-303 • 1953 Ludwig Wittgenstein argued we don’t know the definitions of the simple terms we use everyday eg: game, shoe. Can come up with plausible definitions but there will be exceptions within it • Family Resemblance- features that are common within a family • Characteristic features- features that many category members have • Prototype Theory- identify a category by the ideal in the category not the boundaries (characteristic features) • Membership in a category depends on the resemblance to the prototype • Graded membership- Objects closer to the prototype are better members of the category. • Sentence verification task: participants listen to sentences ad must respond indicating whether the sentence is true or false.  Results: responses to sentences like “ a robin is a bird” were answered more quickly than “a penguin is a bird”  Why? Prototype perspective- quicker to respond when there is more similarity between the test case and the prototype- penguin is more distance from bird than a robin • Production task: list as many birds or dogs as you can.  Prototype view: located prototype in memory then list things that most closely resemble this prototype. Start from the center of the category and work outwards listing birds farther from prototype later. • First birds mention in the production task should be the birds that yielded fast response times in the verification task- tasks converge (yield the same answer) • Rating tasks: Participants given instructions that some birds are birdier than others then presented with a list of words and asked to rate each one saying which ones are bi
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