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PSYC 3390 (102)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2.docx

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PSYC 3390
Mary Manson- Hennig

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Chapter 2 Historical and Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behaviour Pages 2959 Historical Views of Abnormal BehaviourEarliest treatment of mental disorders practiced thousands of years ago o Certain forms those with headaches convulsive attacks etc medicine man treated by trephining ie chipping away one area of the skull with stone instruments until a hole was cut through the skull this was thought to allow evil spirits to escape when in fact may have just relieved some pressure Demonology Gods and MagicEarly writings show Chinese Egyptians Hebrews and Greeks often attributed abnormal behaviour to a demon or god that had take possession of the personMain treatment for demonic possession was exorcismHippocrates Early Medical ConceptsHippocrates referred to as the father of modern medicine denies deities and demons intervened in the development of mental illnessesInsisted mental disorders had natural causes and appropriate treatmentsBelieved that mental disorders were due to brain pathology Emphasized the importance of heredity and predispositionPointed out that injuries to the head could cause sensory and motor disordersDoctrine of the four humours o The four elements of the material world earth are fire water combined to form the four essential fluids of the body blood sanguis phlegm bile choler and black bile melancholer o These fluids combined in different proportions within individuals and a persons temperament was determined by which of the humours was dominant o Earliestlongestlasting typologies of human behaviour the sanguine the phlegmatic the choleric and the melancholicEach of these types had its own personality attributesHippocrates considered dreams to be important and developed a basic concept of modern psychodynamic psychotherapyWhile he emphasized the natural causes of diseases clinical observation and brain pathology as the root of mental disorder he had little knowledge of physiology Early Philosophical ConceptionsThe Greek philosopher Plato studied mentally disturbed individuals that committed criminal acts and ways to deal with themhe believed these people should not receive punishment in the same way as normal persons o Plato also made provisions for mental cases to be cared for in the community o Plato viewed psychological phenomena as responses of the whole organism he emphasized the importance of individual differences in intellectual and other abilities and took into account sociocultural influences in shaping thinking and behaviour o Platos idea of treatment included hospital care for individuals who developed beliefs different than the broader social order where they would be engage in conversations comparable to psychotherapyAristotle a student of Plato developed descriptions of consciousnesso Held the view that thinking as directed would eliminate pain and help to attain pleasure o Aristotle discussed and rejected the possibility of psychological factors such as frustration and conflict causing mental disorders o He subscribed to the Hippocratic theory of disturbances in the bile Later Greek and Roman ThoughMedical practices had developed to a higher level Pleasant surrounding were considered great therapeutic value for mental patientsPhysicians used a wide range of therapeutic measures including diet massage hydrotherapy gymnastics and education as well as some less desirable practices such as bloodletting purging and mechanical restraintsOne of the most influential Greek physicians was Galen
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