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Chapter 1

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1.docx

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PSYC 3390
Mary Manson

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1 9/14/2012 12:54:00 PM - Family aggregation is when a disorder runs in the family - 20% of Canadians will suffer from a mental disorder at some point, anxiety disorders are the most common What do we mean by Abnormal Behaviour? - A lot of agreement about which conditions are disorderes and which are not - We adopt a prototype kind of model of abnormality and assess the degree to which a given person resembles it - every definition of abnormal or disorder has so far proved problematic - repetitive-stress injury might be treatable with the use of magnets - elements of abnormality include: suffering (not sufficient or necessary), maladaptiveness (not necessary or sufficient), deviancy (something that is not normal but not desirable), violation of the standards of society (depends on the magnitude of the violation and how common it is), social discomfort and irrationality and unpredictability - a classification system provides us with a nomenclature (naming system) and helps us to structure information - however, using any form of shorthand leads to a loss of information - there can be a negative stigma attached to receiving a psychiatric diagnosis - there is a problem of stereotyping with a disorder and labeling - a symptom is a single indicator of a problem whereas a syndrome is a group or cluster of symptoms that all occur together - DSM-IV Defition of Mental Disorders: a clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern, associated with distress or disability, not simply a predictable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event, considered to reflect behavioural, psychological, or biological disfunction in the individual - Wakefields Definition of Mental Disorders: causes significant distress or disability, is not merely an expectable response to a particular event and is a manifestation of a mental dysfunction - Certain forms of psychopathology seem to be culture specific, for example, taijin kyofusho is an anxiety disorder prevalent in Japan that involves a marked fear that ones body, body parts or body functions may offend or embarrass others or make them feel uncomfortable, ataque de mervios in the latino-caribbean and latin Mediterranean is triggered by a stressful event includes crying, trembling, uncontrollable screaming and a general feeling of being out of control, but once it is over they may quickly return to normal and have no memory of the event - Abnormal behavior is behavior that deviates from the norms of the society in which it is enacted’ How Common are Mental Disorders? - women with depression outnumber men with depression but 2:1 ratio meaning gender is important in understanding depression, but among the Jews, gender is affected equally - epidemiology is the study of the distribution of diseases, disorders or health related behaviours in a population - prevalence refers to the number of active cases in a population during any given period of time—typically expressed as percentages - point prevalence refers to the estimated proportion of actual, active cases of the disorder in a given population at any instant in time - a one year prevalence figure would count everyone who suffered of said disorder at any time during the whole year - lifetime prevalence covers anyone who suffered a certain disorder at anytime in their life, including both currently ill people and those who have recovered - incidence refers to the number of new cases that occur over a given period of time (usually a year)—only new cases though - NCS-R study showed a widespread occurrence of comorbidity among diagnosed disorders—presence of two or more disorders in the same person, especially high in people who
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