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PSYC 3440 (22)
Chapter 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3440
Professor
Meghan Mc Murtry
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2 Notes: Piaget Four Stages Model 1) Sensorimotor 2) Preoperational 3) Concrete Operational 4) Formal Operational 1) Sensorimotor - Birth  2 years - Cognitive system limited to motor reflexes 2) Preoperational - 26/7 years - Acquisition of means fro representing the world symbolically - Vocabulary increases 100 fold (10-60 months) - Static situations (not transformations) - Only their perspective 3) Concrete operational - 6/7 11/12 years - Use other points of view (perspective other than their own) - Transfdormations as well as static situations - Don’t understand highly abstract concepts 4) Formal operational - Adolescence and adulthood - Reason in terms of theories and abstractions as well as concrete realities Developmental Process 1) Assimilation - Transform incoming info so that it fits their existing way of thinking - Extreme case is fantasy play  Functional Assimilation - Tendency to use a mental structure as soon as it becomes available  Reason for engaging in the activity is the sheer delight of mastering new skills 2) Accomodation - Ways in which people adapt their thinking to new experiences - Extreme case is imitation Assimilation and Accommodation mutually influence each other. They are never present without each other. 3) Equilibration - Process by which children integrate their many particular pieces of knowledge of the world into a unified whole The Stage Model (more in-depth than above ) The sensorimotor period ( birth – 2 years)  Substage 1: Modification of reflexes (Birth to one month) - Born with many reflexes (sucking, head moving,etc.) and these reflexes have shown to be building blocks of intelligence - Ie. Accommodation shown when babies learn to suck differently on a milk bearing nipple than their finger  Substage 2: Primary Circular reactions(1-4 months) - Repetitive cycle of events  Infants actions, the effect of those actions on the environment and the impact on the infants subsequent actions - Coordinate actions that originally were separate reflexes Limitations - 1) attempts to reproduce only behaviour that produced the original interesting event - 2) actions are poorly integrated – large trial and error component - 3) only try to repeat actions in which the outcome of the action involves their own bodies (sucking fingers)  Substage 3: Second circular reactions (4-8 months) - Interested in outcomes occurring beyond their bodies (batting balls with their hands to watch them roll) - Organize more efficiently the components of their circular reactions - Only form goals directly suggested to them by the immediate situation  Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular reactions (8-12 months) - Able to coordinate two or more secondary circular reactions into an efficient routine - Development of relatively enduring internal representations of the world lays the foundation for all further cognitive growth  Substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months) - Actively search for new ways to interact with objects and explore uses - Similar not identical reactions  Substage 6: Beginnings of representational thought (18-24 months) - Transitional between the sensorimotor and preoperational stage - Internalized representations ie opening mouth to represent wanting to open a box in real life The Preoperational Stage (2 – 6/7 years) - Growth of representational ability is key Early Symbolic Representations  Deferred imitation (imitation of an activity hours or days after it occurred)  Symbols (idiosyncratic representations intended only for personal use)  Signs (conventional representations intended for communication)  Focus on static states rather than transformations  Egocentric (focuses on their perspective only) The Concrete Operational period (6/7 – 11/12 years) - Mental representations of dynamic as well as static aspects of the environment - Master conservation problems The Formal Operations Period (Roughly 11-12 Years Onward)  Adolescents begin to see reality  Question the world for meaning, truth, justice and morality  First acquire a test for science fiction during adolescence  Logical and scientific reasoning occur The Development of Some Critical Concepts  Conservation o Occurs in the sensorimotor period o Also known as object permanence o Infants younger than 8 months assume objects disappear when hidden o Substage 1:  Birth – 1 month: infants look at objects in front of them but if object moves, they don’t follow it with their eyes o Substage 2:  1-4 months: infants prolong looking at place where object disappeared but don’t follow its movement  They will drop a toy on the floor and continue looking at their hand for the toy not on the floor o Substage 3:  4-8 months: anticipate where moving objects go  Look for them if in partial view but will not look if fully covered o Substage 4:  8-12 months: in
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