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PSYC 3440 (22)
Caron Bell (10)
Chapter 5

Cognitive Development - Chapter 5 summary

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3440
Caron Bell

Chapter 5- Perceptual Development -people are biologically prepared to perceive the world in certain ways -perception and action are closely connected from the beginning of life, for example: when infants see a ball rolling they reach not where the ball is when they begin reach, but rather toward where the ball will be by the time their hands arrive. -the visual system includes two main subsystems: 1) Ventral: carries information in large part to the temporal cortex of the brain. It recognizes and represents the visual world. 2) Dorsal: carries information to the perceptual cortex. It uses perceptual information to guide action. -aspects of both systems are functional in the first half year of life -we perceive the world through sensory systems: vision, audition (hearing), gestation (taste), olfaction (smell) and a few others. -the task of perception needs to accomplish 3 functions: 1) Attending: determining what in a situation is worthy of detailed processing. 2) Identifying: involves recognizing what we perceive 3) Locating: involves specifying how far away the perceived object or event is and in what direction relative to the observer. Example: In a jungle and you see a tiger, you turn your attention towards it, identify it and locate how far away it is from you and where it is heading. Vision -the lens bends the light rays to protect a focused image on the light-sensitive retina -the retina has 2 receivers of light: 1) Cones: enable color vision and are used in the day. (Concentrated in the fovea, center of the retina) 2) Rods: enable dim light and are used at night. (In the retina, not the fovea) Two methods for studying visual perception: 1) Preferential-looking: when an infant looks more at one object than the other object because of a preferred difference. Example: the child looks more at the red ball, then the blue ball, they like the color red more, that is the difference. 2) Habituation: infants grow bored with objects that are presented repeatedly. First, the familiarization phase is when an object is presented repeatedly. When infants get bored of looking at it, a new object is introduced. If infants show more interest in the new object, they must perceive a difference between the two. Attending to Visual Patterns -Attention-getting (grabs initial attention) vs. attention-holding (attention persists) -the same attention-getting properties continue to influence perception throughout life and attention-holding properties change with age and experience -the orienting reflex: when you hear a loud noise you turn your attention to it without even identifying what it is yet (is present at birth) -when your attention is attracted to an object, your attention is reflected in overt behavior -when your attention is looking at something, however your mind is somewhere else, your attention is reflected in covert behavior -it is not until 2 months that infants examine other internal features -infants love moderate stimulation (something that is not too bright and not too dark, something in the middle) Example: if a loud noise was paired with the middle bright object, they would switch to liking the dimmer object because together they would provide a moderate level of stimulation -Moderate-discrepancy hypothesis: infants are interested in looking at objects that are moderately discrepant that they already recognize or know about. - 3 month olds can detect regular alternating patterns as well as more complex patterns of events (e.g. pictures switching places, a pattern in a list of letters), any infants younger than this could not form expectancies Identifying objects and events - Visual acuity: (vision for fine detail) enables people to see clearly the similarities and differences among stimuli. Example: the chart at the optometrist’s
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