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PSYC 3440 (22)
Caron Bell (10)
Chapter 10

Cognitive Development - Chapter 10 summary

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PSYC 3440
Caron Bell

Chapter 10 Problem Solving Task analysis -Are careful examinations of problems, intended to identify the processes needed to solve them -In situations in which people cannot solve problems efficiently, task analyses can suggest places where they might have difficultly and what the source of difficulty might be Encoding -Involves identifying the critical information in a situation and using it to build an internal representation of the situation -Children often fail to encode important features of a task because they don’t know what the important features are, they don’t understand, or they don’t know how to encode them efficiently Mental models -To solve problem, people construct mental models of the task and what they need to do to solve it -Halford identified central characteristics of good mental. Most important:  Model accurately represents the structure of the problem. When the model’s structure parallels that of the situation depicted in the problem, people understand, otherwise they don’t understand (although they may be able to use another method to remember ex: memorizing) -Forming mental models requires children to reconcile what they are told by other people with their own experiences -Culture specific models draw on the specific “folk cosmologies”, or informal theories about the universe, to which children are exposed Domain-general and domain-specific knowledge -Processes that are broadly applicable tend not to be as efficient in solving a specific class of problems as are processes precisely tailored to fit those problems Developmental differences: -Piaget claimed that preoperational children were incapable of scientific and deductive reasoning. They depicted formal operational adolescents as excelling at these types of reasoning Processes of change -Microgenetic method: a tool used to investigate the nature of change, involves obtaining frequent samples of children’s thinking as their thinking is undergoing change Findings: -Children generally think about problems in multiple ways at any given time. This cognitive variability is evident before periods of rapid change, during them, and after them -Innovations follow success as well as failure. Children generate new approaches to solving problems when older approaches aren’t working anymore Planning -Is future oriented problem solving. It is used most often in complex and novel situations -5 reasons why people (children) might not plan -Planning means you can’t act immediately -Children believe they can succeed without a plan -Possible risk of wasted effort -Planning means coordinating with other people which can be challenging -If children don’t plan, parents can help them Means-ends analysis -It involves comparing the goal we would like to attain with the current situation and reducing differences between the 2 until the goal can be met. The process demands keeping several items in mind: subgoals, procedures fo
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