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PSYC 3440 (22)
Caron Bell (10)
Chapter 9

Cognitive Development - Chapter 9

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PSYC 3440
Caron Bell

Chapter 9: Extinction of Conditioned Behaviour pg. 299-331 Extinction- omitting the US or reinforce; classical active process Classical conditioning; repeated presentations of the CS by itself Instrumental Conditioning; no longer presenting the reinforce as a consequence of the instrumental response -extinction is the opposite of acquisition (traditional theories) -behaviour that occurs because of extinction is not the same as forgetting -most vugiorous areas of researchch today; appetite and aversive behaviours -extinctions is being used in clinical practice based on laboratory findings; pathological the exposure therapy- extinction procesudre in which participants are exposed to cues that elicit fear in the absence of the aversive US Effects of Extinction Procedures -target response decreases when the response no longer results in reinforcement (primary behavioural effect) -increases response variability (secondary behavioural effect) ie. your apartment key does not fit; try several attempts to open it and jiggling it different ways (secondary effect); if nothing works, you would give up (primary effect) -can produce strong emotional effects; frustration-emotional rxn induced by withdrawal of an expected reinforce; may produce aggression -extinction-induced aggression has been observed in pigeon, rats, and ppl and can be a problem when extinction is used in behaviour therapy Extinction and Original Learning Spontaneous Recovery (Pavlov) -rest period is introduced after extinction training, responding is observed to recover; nothing is done during rest period to produce the recovery therefore spontaneous -Rescorla study Renewal of Original Excitatory Conditioning Renewal- Mark Couton; recovery acquisition performance when the contextual cues that were present during extinction changed; change can be a retunnr to the context of original acquisition or shift to a neutral context -special interest b/c it suggests that what a client learns in the therapist’s office may not translate to what occurs at their homes, work, or school -studied in human and non-human subjects; evident w/ external contextual cues, and contextual cues created by drug states; rennewl can also occur is subject is removed from the context of extincton to and alternate context -explanation of the renewal effect is that it is due to excitatory properties conditioned to the renewal context; memory of extinction is specific to the cues that were present during the extinction phase -some cues may mean different things; ie. the word cut; could mean to split something in two, or to be cut from a team; extinction depends on the semantic context -fear/phobia may return if they experience it in a different context -therefore must conduct extinction in a number of contexts; also conditioned inhibition training, differential conditioning, presenting the CS explicitly unpaired w/ the US Reinstatement of Conditioned Excitation Reinstatement-the recovery of conditioned behaviour produced by exposures to the unconditioned stimulus -fear ad anxiety may return if the client experiences the aversive stimuli (US) later in life -has been documented in human fear conditioning - result of context conditioning Retention of Knowledge of the Reinforcer -if a conditioned behaviour reflects an S-O or R-O, devaluation of the renforcer should produce a decrement in responding; see if reinforce devaluation also suppresses conditioned respnding after extinction; retrain the CS w/ new reinforce, to create a response baseline high enough for devaluation test -studies have shown that and extinguished CS continues to activate a representation of the US; info about the re
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