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PSYC 3450 (49)
Chapter 5

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PSYC 3450
Karl Hennig

Development of Intimate Relationships Chapter 5 - children (15-30 month) who were separated from their mothers for long periods of times engaged in protest phases (crying, demands and resistance for a few hours to more than a week), phase of despair (lost hope, unresponsive and apathetic) and the detachment phase (apparent recovery but cool and indifferent when returned to mother) - a fourth separation phase, permanent withdrawal from human relationships, may occur if a childs separation from the mother is extremely prolonged or if they lose a series of temporary attachment objects, like nurses or babysitters, while separated from mother - children reared in orphanages and other instititutions failed to form close emotional ties to anyone and would sink into states of despression and despair What are emotional attachments? - close contact with an infant can intensify positive feelings that parents may already have for their baby and help them get off to a good start with them, especially when mothers are very young, economically disadvantaged, and know very little themselves about how to stimulate or care for an infant - an important contributor to the growth of attachments is the synchronized routines that infants and caregivers often establish over the first few months of a babys life; infants normally begin to gaze quite intently and to show more interest in their months faces between 4 and 9 weeks of age and by 2 o 3 months are beginning to understand simply social contingencies - infants play an important role in winning others affection by virtue of their responsiveness to social overtures and their emerging ability to synchronize their behaviours with those of sensitive companions - synchronized exchanges between 3 month olds and their caregivers may occur several times a day and are particularly important contributors to emotional attachments How do infants become attached? - the asocial phase (0-6 weeks) - phase of indiscriminate attachments (6 weeks to 7 months) infants smile more at people then other lifelike objects and are likely to fuss when put down - specific attachment phase (7-9 months) usually protest when taken from particular individuals and follow mother and are wary of strangers - an attachment object (like the mother) will serve as a secure base for exploration, a point of safety from which an infant can venture away from - phase of multiple attachments—within weeks after forming their initial attachments, about half of infants start to become attached to other people and by 18 months rarely any infant is attached to only one person - I love you because you feed me: freud - Learning theory: mother is a secondary reinforcer because she provides food, love and other pleasurable sensations - Imprinting is automatic and occurs only within a narrowly delimited critical period after the bird has hatched and is also irreversible; the imprinting response became inborn after many generations, it is a preadapted characteristic that attaches a young fowl to its mother and increases its chances of survival Individual differences in attachment security - strange situation consists of 8 episodes that attempt to stimulate naturalistic caregiver/infant interactions in the presence of toys, brief separations from the caregiver and encounters with strangers and reunion episodes - 65% are securely attached - 105 are resistantly attached - 20% are avoidantly attached - 5-15% are disorganized/disoriented attachment - the attachment q-set is appropriate for use with 1-5 year olds; q-set data can also be scored to indicate the particular type of attachment the child has with a caregiver and these assessments generally match those derived from the SSP - other methods used with adolescents and adults include the adult attachment interview in which respondents are questioned extensively about their recollections and feelings about their early childhood relationships with parents and based on their reports, are classified as having secure, avoidant/dismissing, resistant/preoccupied/ or unresolved/disoriented mental representations of attachment relationships -
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