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SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3450
Professor
Karl Hennig

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SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY  Psych 3450  Sexual Development 1. What has changed in terms of sexual behaviour among teens? Discuss the reasons teens report for engaging in sexual intercourse. • Age of first sex decreasing o 1925: depression era; people rarely passed into high school and further education o STDs and education about safe sex practices and attitudes leads to decrease in modern times • Biggest change: number of partners o Increase in number of partners over time o First sex at an early age in previous generations correlated with marriage at earlier ages o Now, early sex usually correlates with increasing number of partners • Reasons for sex o #1 reason: curiosity and readiness o for 50% of females and 25% males, affection for partner was primary reason o #2 reason: push into “adult” behaviours, peer pressure, pressure from dating partner, out of obligation o rates of curiosity and readiness far exceed rates of pressure 2. How does the hookup culture (since 90s) differ from the previous post 60s sexually permissive culture? Briefly discuss ___ (e.g.,3) contributing factors of the hookup culture • Different form sexual liberation of previous generations • New idea of “consensual non-monogamy”: not fulfilled by monogamy; honesty and transparency • mid 1980’s: first wide use of the term “hook up”, compared to “going steady” culture form 1920s-1960s. o 1920s: use of markers to ensure monogamy • “Casual sex has become hegemonic, … romance and relationships is seen as undesirable” (Heldman et al., 2010) o Hegemony: push out smaller ideas and become the overarching big idea that is accepted o Casual sex has been a part of college for decades, but devaluing dating culture is more recent o Absence of dating/ courting  1990s • Reasons o 1960s/70s sexual revolution (permissiveness) o Birth control: became widely available in 1960s o Women’s movement o Gender distribution across campuses (sexual strategy theory)  Sexual Strategies Theory: women are inclined to have less partners because they have less ovum to distribute where as men want to “sow their seed” and are thus more inclined to have more sexual relations o Rising binge alcohol use (44%  4-5 drinks per 2 hours) o Porn and pornification of mass media o Rise of narcissistic entitlement of Gen Y 3. Discuss the context, general rates of, and types of hook ups? How has the sexual script changed? • Hooking up o Context (party, club, etc): go somewhere private, leave before morning, walk of shame, etc o Rates: 2/3 – ¾ hook up at some point in college  Of those that did hook up at some point (post college survey) indicated that 40% show these rates: • 40%: less than or 3x • 40%: 4-9x • 20%: more than 10x o Types: randoms, regulars (booty calls), and FwB (regular) • Changes in the Sexual Script o Script: normative order of events o Change in behaviours; acceptance of certain behaviours/ sequence of actions and behaviours o Contemporary sexual script moving away from intercourse witn increased oral and anal sex  Oral sex before vaginal in hierarchy of intimacy o Declining rates of vaginal intercourse o Anal sex (18-24 yr olds)  1992: 16%  2002: 26% th  Several studies showed 2x increase in second half od 20 century o Oral sex (15-19 yr olds)  1995: 50%  2002: 55% o Comparing traditional culture:  Sexually in traditional cultures associated with procreation and not for pleasure due in part to economic implications  Mingling between sexes was highly regulated and in most cases frowned upon  Change in cultural dynamic moving towards individualistic ideas towards sexuality; less concern about procreation 4. How does the notion of the “false-consensus effect” perhaps helps to explain the Speak Easy story? What does research indicate people mean by the term “hook up”? • False consensus: cognitive bias whereby a person overestimates how much other people agree with him/her o Overestimate the frequency their peers hook up, how far they go, and how enjoyable it is to others o Contributes to self blame: “is there something wrong with me” • What is a hook up? o Not necessarily vaginal sex o Ambiguity about terms related to hooking up o General assumptions about what the terms mean differ from person to person o 33% contact only, 49% plus manual, 65% plus oral, 37% intercourse 5. Discuss ____ (one or two) reasons feminists have suggested that hook up culture is not healthy for women. (Be sure to include rates where these are applicable) • Viewpoint: hook up script disadvantages first year females in college who tend to go farther than they otherwise would because they don’t know how to say no OR hope that hook ups will lead to relationships • Tendency to negotiate intimacy in relationships or hook ups • Impolite to say no directly; hope that other person reacts to cue • Orgasm Gap o First time hook ups: women orgasm 32% as often as men o With repeated hook ups, rises to 49% o Male orgasm takes precedence over females  more beneficial for men to hook up than women o Research says that hook ups lead to long term relationships (Vogul: The Hook Up Culture) o Modern culture: sexual intimacy comes before emotional intimacy  Hook up script precedes dating script • Given women’s greater interest in establishing longer-term relationships; hook ups are less likely to lead to long term relationship o “Sex like a man” o Negotiating: shaping the trajectory of how the script unfolds o Hook up script an expression of the male sexual strategy that females are complying with • Reputation and the Double Standard o Hooking up is a socially dominant image; masculine “bragging rights” o Related to challenge and conquest o Inexperienced males are viewed to be less masculine o Negative conotations towards women who are more sexual o Experience a contradiction: enjoy sexual attraction to others yet ambivalent regarding over-sexual behaviour • Hook up Culture and Sexual Assault o Of every hook up ¼ report being raped o 78% of coerced sex occurred while hooking up o most underreported crime Building Healthy Relationships Program: Relationship Continuum • Abusive  Unhealthy  Healthy  Full-on intimate relationship • Red Flags Checklist o Dominance/power/control o Isolation driven by: jealousy, dependence, clinginess, o Personality changes o Mental health issues present o Good start but problems grow slowly o 1 person/2 person problem; reciprocity o Taking responsibility vs. blaming other o Weak and weakening sense of self/ self esteem o Justifications and excuses made for the other person o No growth and learning; negative learning 6. Discuss the ____ issues pertaining to class lecture material on intimate violence (5 issues presented in class) • Definition: threat of physical force or restraint carried out with the intent of causing pain or injury to another o Limiting to physical violence (for parsimony) instead of psychological or sexual violence • Vague definition; resulting in widely different prevalence rates o As low as 9% physical (hit, push, shove) o If including verbal threats, as high as 65% o Most studies conclude 21-45% o No age difference in rates; adult rates = adolescent rates • Issue #1: Gender o Red Flags assumes non-reciprocal male perpetration o Consistent with early feminist model based on research with severely abused women o Recent research shows 50% of violent relationships are reciprocal (r=0.80) o Adolescent studies finds 45 to 72% are reciprocal o Self Defense:  Male and females initiate (vs. defend) at the same rates  Best predictor of female victimization is her perpetration  National survey: both initiate at least 40% of the time  Only a small portion of women say it was in self defense  Self defense doesn’t explain high reciprocity • Issue #2: Cycle of Violence o Intergenerational model has dominated in past; people who experience abuse are more likely to allow abuse in their life later on  Witness/ recipient of abuse becomes the abuser  More likely to continue to allow abuse later in life o Some evidence suggests that childhood abuse is a risk factor for victimization and perpetration for females, but not for males  Research shows that idea of cycle doesn’t have strong evidence  Less in males; females more likely to tolerate violence for much longer than men  Females experience violence longer, given that abuse likely ends earlier with boys as they get bigger/stronger o Results are stronger for females if also witnessed inter-parental violence o Victims more likely to come from separated/divorced households o Witnessing abuse maybe better predictor of acceptance of violence  Begins seeing violence as a way of solving problems when wamily and peers show that violence is a successful way to deal with problems • Issue #3: Clinical Variables: o Self Esteem (masochism)  Victims do tend to report lower self esteem (cause or effect?)  Perpetrators report lower self esteem and higher depression o Personality (vs. Culture)  Social model: aggression in relation to societal expectations. Patriarchal society, and dominance  Female aggression more relationally driven, male aggression more personality driven  Dutton’s Personality Model: accurately identified over 80% of perpetrators, asking questions regarding 1. Rejection by mother/father (stronger predictor than child abuse) 2. Fearful attachment 3. Borderline personality organization (weak sense of self, lack of definition of who they are as a person) • Issue #5: Why Stay? (Older masochistic vs. choice model) o Disengagement as a 5 step process:  Seeds of (fleeting) doubt; often not as consciously identified until the last step  Turning points. Or events that have large impact on relationship  Re-evaluation of relationship (contemplation)  Large shift in view of relationship  Last straw events; provide impetus to leave o Individuals choose to remain  New model shifts away from blaming the victim (masochistic), to an interdependent model  Level of satisfaction: when its good, its really good  Good until trigger towards re-evaluaton  Alternatives: poor sense of self-worthiness and perceives few alternatives  Strong emotional investment o Finding strength to leave: higher fear, anxiety, sadness, some emotional trauma (females 3x more than males) o Serious injury reported by 50% of women and 18% of males o Financially cannot leave • Alcohol and drugs involved in 1/3 of incidents • Perpetrators and victims have poorer emotional regulation, problem solving, and coping abilities Sexually Transmitted Infections Bacterial Infections • Chlamydia o Rates: females 3x more likely to be infected (could be a reflection of individuals who are more likely to be screened o 74% of cases occur in 15-24 yr olds; especially adolescent females vulnerable due to immature cervix o Many females (75%) and males (50%) have no symptoms and unknowingly pass it on o Symptoms: fever, vomiting, headache, disrupted period • Gonorrhea: o Males: symptoms typically 2-5 days later, but can be up to 30 days o In some cases, no symptoms present o Most women are unaware of early symptoms o Females are more susceptible (60-90% upon single event) vs. males (20-30% of being infected) Viral Infections • Herpes 1: oral; cold sores • Herpes 2: genital o 1/5 over 12 yrs in the US has H2 • HPV (genital warts) o Currently found over 100 different types of HPV o Increasing to epidemic proportions  15% of US infected  At least 50% of sexually active people will get HPV o Condoms not fully protective • HIV/ AIDS o Peaks mid 20s with long gestation period o Very infections after initial exposure Marriage and the Family • Developmental stages/levels: the next chapter o Stage salient issue of early adulthood: for most involved long term-committed relationship and work (career/children) o Learning the capacity to maintain the relationships o Evolution needs stable family unit to raise viable and healthy children o Work: contribution to society o Erikson: in order to be successful in later life (later stages in life), one has to have success in previous stages o Ideally, experiences in life lead to learning in stead of carrying on the unresolved issues • Transition from Hook Up culture to Long Term Committed relationships o Maturity gap and function of “dating”: preparation for long term stable relationships in which children are born o Dating is a reflection of individualism and love  spreading of individualistic cultures o People looking for certain traits at different stages of life o Changes in how people actually meet; few report wanting their narrative to be “met at a bar” o 70% of people meet their partner through a friend; not usually a close friend  Distant friends o Internet dating (40% visit each month)  High income, college educated, yet fastest growing users are 50-somethings 7. If given a “case” of unclear communication about love, briefly discuss in terms Sternberg’s Model. • Building of trust issues • Unclear use of the word “love” • Difference between when you love someone vs. care about someone  can care about someone without being in love with them • Saying you love someone is much easier than meaning it o “Meaning it”: accepting certain things about them • Can fall out of love as easily as you can fall in love • Love to some means long term commitment where as it is a feeling to others • Everyday language of love makes unclear distinctions o Feelings of love vs. love  feeling like “love” but not ready to commit to saying “I love you” o Loving someone vs. being in love with someone o In vs. not in love  Either or  Continuum of when it is appropriate to tell someone you love them • Green light? • How do you know when you are truly in love (true love) • Conditional love: feelings of love vs. unconditional love • In love with the idea of being in love vs. actually being in love • Western (modern) Ideal of love marriage: Sternberg’s Model o 4 different types of love: 1. Companionate Love: intimacy + commitment 2. Fatuous Love: passion + commitment 3. Romantic Love: intimacy + passion 4. Consummate Love: intimacy + passion + commitment o Intimacy: deep understanding (intimus: insides)  knowing someone’s outsides; parts of yourself that make you vulnerable o Modern/western ideal is consummate love: erotic dimension + commitment + intimacy o 95% will marry (not as much a religious concept) o Marriage remains our strongest expression of affection and commitment (important in regards to having children) 8. What is “consummate love” in the model? How does it emerge? (Explain terms) • Consummate love: intimacy + passion + commitment • Commitment as a duty lacks passion • Emerges with time (commitment) and continuity of intimacy and passion 9. How does love change over time according to Sternberg’s Model? • Passion builds form start of relationship and fades after 1.5 years o Plateaus after some time o Although some couples are able to maintain the fire o Couples that experiment and try to do different things are more likely to stay together and be happy • Intimacy and commitment continue to build with time 10. Identify 3 main functions of marriage and the family. • Marriage has served several functions for society and individuals • Provides a stable family unit in which children acquire knowledge about their society ‘s rules and more • Provides economic partnership that integrates child rearing, performance of household tasks, and earning an income into one family unit o Healthy relationship: shoulder to shoulder partnership • Marriage defines inheritance rights to family property o Historically, marriage has been more about property and politics and personal happiness and love o Arranged marriage prevailed in Europe before the 19 century – wealth and power was consolidated o In lower classes, involved production of child for work force • Post-WWII nuclear Suburban Family o Set of parents and children, or of relations, living together or not (????) o 50% of families resembled that of Leave it to Beaver; 2.5 kids, parents, pet, white picket fence, etc. 11. How has the family changed from collective to individual cultures? • Collective to individualistic culture change • Covenant marriage: stick to the contract of marriage no matter how bad things get • Expected to think about social implications rather than own feelings • Arranged marriage vs. love marriage o 90% arranged in India o Obligation over individual marital/sexual fulfillment • As china has become more individualistic, marriage has become more unstable o Fragmented families and change in culture o 2004 survey showed 21% increase in divorce rates • Female emancipation; early marriage ends education for most o Niger: 82% girls marries at <18yrs old • Mold for what marriage means was broken • Single life — alternative to marriage (or following divorce) o 33% of males and 25% of females 30-34 yr. olds never married  4x higher than in 1970s o Variety of patterns: celibate by choice or lack of partners, long term sexual relationships, serial monogamy, etc. • Non-monogamous relationships/ consensual extramarital relationships o Differs from cheating o Swingers, open marriage, polyamory, wtc • Interracial marriage o Elimination of racist laws (1967 in US), went form less than 1% in 1970s to 5% in 2000 o Public approval went form 54% in 1995 to 80% in 2009 • Greater expectation for marital and sexual satisfaction o Love Myth: don’t try to redeem yourself from another person and seek for meaning in relationships/life from another person o People putting more pressure on the idea of marriage o Purpose of marriage is mutual happiness and fulfillment vs. baring/raising children  Traditional view: marriage = children  Change in view: marriage = eternal love and happiness o Individualism led to the erosion of support networks: less large collective families; less community o 42% drop in marital satisfaction with arrival of children; people look for meaning in family and children (purpose of life) • Singles and the Internet play an increasing role in matching couples • Cohabitation o Most common mid-20s (25%) o Only 33% in the last 2 years and only 10% for 5 or more years o Associated with lower education o Tends to be less traditional o Less dissatisfaction over time o Cohabitation doesn’t predict long term commitment; living together doesn’t have the same level of commitment as getting married • Increased divorce/less stability in modern family life 12. Describe _____ types of families (adoptive, donor, gay/lesbian). Include the effects on child development/outcome and the problems or challenges that face each of these kinds of families. • Adoptive Families o Pair is infertile o Majority develop securely attached parent-child relationship and are well adjusted o Problems:  Difference in genetic disposition mat form an incompatibility  Adoptees may come from maltreatment context and possess deviant genes  More learning difficulties, emotional problems, higher delinquency compared to non-adoptive parents • Donor Insemination (DI) Families o Sperm from an unknown donor o Faired well at 12 years o No genetic tie to father; tends to be less involved with discipline and other areas o Father more detached compares to adoptive or biological children • Gay/Lesbian Families o Vote on current ban of gay leaders from the Scouts: assumption that gay = pedophile o Several million gay/lesbian couples are parents in the US (adoptive and DI) o Historical concerns have been disconfirmed (mental health, molestation, etc.) o Concerns regarding gender typing issues proven invalid 13. In the video “Real Families- Whining Child” shown in class, what is described as the problem in this family? What parenting “strategies” (or aims) are employed by the therapist and what is their rationale? • Parents want child to have authority/autonomy but not by showing aggression and a dictative method • Wants child to be able to communicate properly in order to get what they want • Therapist’s advice: maintain authority with child, give them space, teach to communicate, don’t respond to whining, time out then reason with child 14. Describe the family dynamic associated with the coercive family environments. (be sure to describe negative reinforcement) • Long term negative effects of the child’s life if coercive and negative communication continues for too long • Predictive of poor social relationships later in life • Predicts aggressive, poorly adjusted children o Family members irritate one another and use aggressive tactics as a method of coping o Negative reinforcement of coercive behaviour: removal of a stimulant that increases behaviour  fighting increases negative behaviour o Parent giving in teaches child that coercive behaviours will give the child what they want  need to stop reacting to child in order to promote better beahviours 15. Describe Baumrind’s parenting model. (might help to draw a figure) • Authoritative Parent (preferred): controlling/demanding as well as accepting/responsive o Warm and accepting—caring and concern motivates child to comply o Control is exercised—flexible standards accompanied by rationale o Allows for freedom of expression o Demands are fair and reasonable vs. arbitrary and dictatorial o Elicit commited compliance vs. complaining and defiance  due to positive relationships o Deals with children’s noncompliance firmly but patiently • Permissive Parent: not controlling/not demanding and accepting/responsive  hippie parent • Authoritarian Parent: aloof/unresponsive and controlling/demanding  Chinese mom • Uninvolved Parent: aloof/unresponsive and not controlling/ not demanding  absentee • Western cultural parenting: want kids to internalize reasons for what was reinforced by parents to that children can conduct themselves when parents aren’t around to make decisions for them • Recent Cross Cultural Research o Inconsistent and harsh parenting, excessive levels of control, low parental monitoring, and parent child conflict lead to problems like aggression, delinquency and depression 16. How does the author define success (3 things)? (or to what end do parents seek to direct development?) • Authoritarian value of obedience: respect for authority, higher behavioural expectations, child not to question or challenge parental decisions • Success: instilling the importance of academics • Success = academic success 17. What does the author mean by the virtuous circle? • Virtuous circle: practice  perfect  fun 18. The author says, “there are three big differences between Chinese and Western Parental mindsets; briefly describe each. • Emphasis on self esteem • Chinese parents think that child is indebted to them, western parents don’t think kids owe them anything • Chinese parents think that they know what’s best for their kids, western parents think kids can make their own decisions 19. Describe authoritarian parenting. How does the Baumrind model NOT fit with ___ American culture? • Baumrind model doesn’t fit with collective cultures • Asian American Families o Confusion ethics place emphasis on sovereign and subject (hierarchical) relations o Father son; older brother  younger brother; husband wife o Linear/vertical subordination levels o Subordinate is to respect and display loyalty; dominant expected to teach and discipline o Filial Piety: obeying and honoring parents with an emphasis on fear o Collective cultures behave in ways that being honour and not disgrace to the family name o “Guan”: involves continuous monitoring and correcting of child’s behavior as training o Immense parental devotion, sacrifice, and commitment to child o Foster motivation to achieve in school to fulfill societal and family expectations o Adolescence is viewed as an extension of childhood rather than period of achieving autonomy and independence o Outcome: Asian American immigrants 37% achieve at least a B.A. degree  Vs. 20% of general population (1990 consensus) • African Americans (no nonsense parenting) o Several studies show protective factors of restrictive parental control in this ethnic group o Unilateral decision making (part of authoritarianism) predicts decreased deviant activity  Vs. European culture where associated with lower self esteem and work orientation o Greater use of physical punishment; believed to be necessary in racist and discriminatory culures  adaptive based on environment o Physical discipline associated with aggression in European families, but the opposite in African American families o High degree of restrictiveness and high warmth predict higher academic achievement and lower depression o Communalism: emphasis on interconnectedness of universe; strong belief in religion and spirituality o Spirituality and communalism predicted higher family cohesiveness and decreased problems 20. Describe adaptive parenting practices within the _____ American culture and associated “world views and values”. • Asian Americans Parental Involvement o Managerial: tutor and check homework, monitor progress, advice in selection of courses o Structural: set up child’s environment with after school schedules, enriched experiences (music, tutoring) TV time rules o Fear of loosing face; guilt after failure • African Americans o An ethnic group faced long history of racism and discrimination o Restrictive parenting practices that buffer children against poverty, racism, discrimination etc. o Authoritarian is adaptive in this context  no nonsense 21. What s the current rate of divorce? What two factors discussed have had an impact? th • Divorce rate: 41% will end before the 30 year of marriage • 32% in Ontario • Factor 1: the law o Spike in divorce rates in 1970s when the Divorce Act was initiated in 1968  Divorce Act: allowed people to leave their partner in cases of infidelity o Act was reformed in 1987 and increased divorce rates again  Allowed to leave for other reasons after 1 year of separation (compared to the previous 3 years of separation) o Current decline: new cases decreased by 8% from 2006 to 2011 • Factor 2: Economics o When people have mutual finances, it is harder to leave a marriage o Financial crash in 2008 made it harder for people to sustain on one income o Harder to arrange finances/ stability 22. Discuss how the meaning of marriage has changed from collective to individual culture. • Marriage was more a political/social/economic arrangement framed religiously as a covenant (contract) with God as opposed to a 2-person love marriage o Put more emphasis on commitment (Sternberg) as opposed to passion and intimacy • Modern culture less tied to religious beliefs o More emphasis on passion and intimacy o 96% of adults continue to marry and re-marry • Most likely retains its meaning as the greatest expression of love and commitment • Initial passion in marriages (foundation) helps to keep people together for longer 23. Discuss factors that contribute to the rise in rates of separation and divorce. • Myth of the Love Marriage: unrealistic expectations of what marriage will do for the individual o People need to have a strong sense of self and ability to make yourself happy before seeking fulfillment from others/ relationships o Increased expectations for marital and sexual fulfillment o Function of love marriage; expectation that partner will complete their life • No fault divorce in 1968 makes it simpler to get divorced; cause and consequence o Lessened the stigma around divorce o Only 2% of people who get married go for a traditional covenant marriage • Increased economic independence for women o ½ earn more than the man o Women able to support themselves and don’t need to stay in marriage to maintain financial stability o Relationship satisfaction more important than financial dependence • Teen marriage 2x more likely to end in divorce compared to people in their 20s o 30s have even lower rates o Need a level of self awareness to be able to make marriage work o Contributes to people getting married later • Low or very high education leads to higher likelihood of divorce o Low education  low socioeconomic status o High education  higher expectations • Divorce rates highest in the US southern bible best o Ironic: in theory are the people who make the most judgments about divorce • Increasing Life Expectancy o People reaching sexual maturity earlier and getting married later o Life expectancy reflects problems like famine, disease, and health o Humans living longer  in Neolithic times, people didn’t live past 20 yrs.  Didn’t have to worry about divorce because they didn’t live long enough to become dissatisfied with love life  Roman empire: 22-25 yrs  1900: 30  1985: 62  2010: 67  81 in Canada 24. What are the top 3 reasons for divorce listed in the Amatto, 2003 study? • Infidelity o Men: 15% o 25% women • Incompatibility o Men and women: 19% • Alcohol/ substance abuse o Men: 5% o Women: 14% 25. Identify and discuss consequences of divorce on the family. • Separation/ divorce is a large financial loss for both parties o Problems with receiving spousal support and child support places burden (typically on the woman) o Financial challenges going forward for the party earning less money (stay at home mom) • Question of where children will live • End of family activities  family vacations • Disruption of joint relationships (mutual friends) • Discomfort of others knowing; feeling judgment • Parent conflict over issues, post separation 26. Identify and discuss consequences of divorce on the children. Are the effects strong generally? • Studies comparing divorced children vs. intact families o Lower academic achievement o Conduct problems o Psychological adjustment difficulties o Impaired social relationships o Poorer self concept o Poorer relationship with own children alter in life • Effects are modest: 0.08 (self concept) to 0.26 (father child relationship deterioration) • Meta-analysis for 27 studies: lower psychological well-being, lower self esteem attainment, poorer marriage, increased divorce rates • BUT when you control for hostility between parents during marriage, shows that children are more impacted by the negative environment than by divorce • Children would benefit more if they didn’t experience the hostility • 1991 study: effects ranging form -0.08 to -0.26 depending on outcome assessed o Children form divorced families, at worst, were a quarter standard deviation below children from intact families • Recent research: conflict before divorce has more impact on child than actual divorce/ after divorce Social and Emotional Development Emotions and Temperament • Individuals are / couples part when: o Too flat: emotionally over-regulated o Too crazy/conflicting; under regulated  Easier to with conflictual couple but it requires some conflict resolution skills • Temperament and emotional style are fundamental aspect of personality o Related to sense of value and reading your own emotions o Internal compass that guides behaviour • Frontal Lobe patient looses his emotional experience o Damage to frontal love doesn’t damage all aspects of a person; still able to perform IQ tests and every day tasks o Can recognize that he should feel an emotion but knows he doesn’t o Neurofibres linked to emotional parts of brain were cut off o Able to tell that partner feels emotion, but cant reciprocate o Doesn’t “know” the subjective feeling, but can intellectually understand/describe the emotions • Emotional IQ (EI) o The ability to experience, understand, and regulate the emotions of oneself and others, also emotionally cope with stressor and environmental demands 27. Describe the 4 components of an emotion • Reality: internal/external triggers • Cognitive/ interpretive component: cognitive development drives emotional development • Subjective feeling of the emotion: feelings grounded in reality • Response: action or expression o Motivational state towards a goal (fight/flight) o Physiological state that supports the goal 28. Describe the emotion hierarchy. What ages are the different levels associated with? • Birth: little more than general posi
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