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Social-Personality Development (PSYC 3450) Chapter Summaries

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3450
Professor
Shaina Rosenrot
Semester
Winter

Description
Social­Personality Development Chapter  Summaries Chapter 12: Sexuality during Adulthood and Adolescence Sexual Behaviour during Infancy and Childhood Infant Sexuality • Infants (first 2 years of life) discover the pleasures of genital stimulation during infancy o This often involves thrusting or rubbing the genital area against an object o In some cases the infants have been observed experiencing what appears to be an orgasm • Masturbation activities are often gratifying o Many infants of both sexes engage quite naturally in self-pleasuring unless such behaviour produces strong negative responses from parents or caregivers Childhood Sexuality • People show considerable variation in their sexual development during childhood, and diverse influences are involved • It is important to realize that, other than reports from primary caregivers, most of what we know about childhood sexual behaviour is based on recollections of adults who are asked to recall their childhood experiences • The inclinations we have as adults toward giving and receiving affection seem to be related to our early opportunities for warm, pleasurable, contact with significant others, particularly parents o The children who were derived of ‘contact comfort’during the first months and years of life can have difficulty establishing intimate relationships later in their Spotlight on Research: Normative Sexual Behaviour in Children: A Contemporary Sample • William Friedrich and his colleagues interviewed a large sample of mothers regarding sexual behaviours they had observed in their children (ages 2-12) • Awide range of sexual behaviours were observed at varying levels of frequency throughout the entire age range of children o The most frequently observed sexual behaviour were self-stimulation, lives Childhood Masturbation • The rhythmic manipulation of the genitals associated with adult masturbation generally does not occur until a child reaches the age of 2 ½ or 3 years old • Masturbation is one of the most common and natural forms of sexual expression during the childhood years o 16% of mothers observed their 2-5 year olds children masturbating with their hands o 1/3 of female respondents and 2/3 of males reported having masturbated before adolescence • Parental reactions to self-pleasuring can be an important influence on developing sexuality o Most parents and other primary caregivers inAmerican society tend to discourage or prohibit such activities o Greatly magnifying the guilt and anxiety associated with his behaviour • How can adults convey their acceptance of this natural and normal form of self- exploration? o Not reacting negatively to the genital fondling that is typical of infants and young children o Explaining the potential for pleasure that exists in their genital anatomy o Respecting their privacy • Children are generally aware of enough of social expectations to maintain a high degree of privacy in something as emotionally laden and personal as self-pleasuring Childhood Sex Play • Pre-pubertal children often engage in play that can be viewed as sexual o Takes place with friends/siblings o Occurs as early as the age of 2-3 years, but is more likely to take places between the ages of 4-7 • Alfred Kinsey and colleagues noted that 45% of the females and 57% of the males in their sample reported having these experiences by age 12 • The activities ranged from exhibition and inspection of the genitals to stimulating intercourse o For many children the play aspects of interaction are far more significant than any sexual overtones • Curiosity about the sexual equipment of others, particularly the other sex, is quite normal • Many children in the 5-7 age range begin to act in ways that mirror the predominant heterosexual marriage script in our society o In the practice of playing house • By the time children reach the age of 8-9, there is a pronounced tendency for boys and girls to begin to play separately, although romantic interest in the other sex may exist at the same time o Curiosity about sexual matters remains high o Many questions about reproduction and sexuality are asked • Most 10-11 year-olds are keenly interested in body changes, involving the genitals and secondary sex characteristics • These childhood same-sex encounters are transitory, soon replaced by the heterosexual courting of adolescence The Physical Changes of Adolescence • Adolescence is a time of dramatic physiological changes and social-role development o Ages 12-20 o Major physical changes and changes in behaviour and role expectations • By cross-cultural standards, adolescence in our society is rather extended o In many cultures, adult roles are often initiated upon reaching puberty • Puberty: a period of rapid physical changes in early adolescence during which the reproductive organs mature o When a child is between 8-14 years old, the hypothalamus increases secretions that cause the literary gland to release large amounts of hormones known as gonadotropins into the bloodstream o These hormones stimulate activity in the gonads, and they are chemically identical in boys and girls, with different results though • Girls typically enter puberty at age 10-11, whereas boys experience puberty at age 12 • Secondary sex characteristics: the physical characteristics other than genital development that indicate sexual maturity, such as body hair, breasts and deepened voice • The only event of puberty that is clearly different in boys and girls in growth o Because estrogen is a much better facilitator of growth hormone secretion by the pituitary gland than is testosterone, as soon as a girl starts to show pubertal development, she starts to grow more quickly o This begins about 2 years earlier in girls • The internal organs of both sexes undergo further development during puberty o In girls the vaginal walls become thicker, and the uterus becomes larger and more muscular o Vaginal pH changes from alkaline to acidic o The first menstrual period is called menarche o Some adolescents girls experience irregular menstrual cycles for several years before their periods become regular and predictable • In boys the prostate gland and seminal vesicles increase noticeably in size during puberty o Ejaculation becomes possible o The first ejaculation occurs a year after the growth spurt has begun, usually around age 13 o The initial appearance of sperm in the ejaculate typically occurs at about age 14 • Adolescents are likely to become—at least temporarily—more homo-social, relating socially primarily with members of the same sex Sexuality and Diversity: American Ethnic Diversity in Age at Menarche • Girls (8-20 years of age) found significant ethnic differences in age at menarche • AfricanAmerican girls start to menstruate earlier than girls in the other two ethnic groups Sexual Behaviour during Adolescence • Adolescence is a period of exploration, when sexual behaviour generally increases The Sexual Double Standard • The emphasis on gender-role differentiation often increases during adolescence o Sexual double standard: different standards of sexual permissiveness for women and men, with more restrictive standards almost always applied to women o Can influence both male and female sexuality throughout our lives o Diminishing among adolescents and adults in NorthAmerica • Potential influences include: o For males the focus of sexuality may be sexual conquest o Young men who are non-aggressive or sexually inexperienced are often labelled with highly negative terms such as sissy o Social reinforcement for stereotypically masculine attitudes and behaviours  Approval is given to aggressive and independent behaviours • Many girls face a dilemma o They may learn to appear sexy to attract males, yet they often experience ambivalence about overt sexual behaviour o Encouraged virginity in girls o If a young women refuses to have sex, she may worry that boyfriends will lose interest and stop dating her o But if she engages in sex, she may fear that has gained a reputation for being ‘easy’ Masturbation • During adolescence the behaviour tends to increase in frequency o Masturbation frequency rates among females are notably lower than males for all age groups, including adolescents • Masturbation can serve as an important avenue for sexual expression o Available outlet for sexual tension o Learn about one’s body and its sexual potential o Experiment with different ways of pleasuring themselves, thereby increasing their self-knowledge Non­Coital Sexual Expression • Non-coital sex: refers to erotic physical contact that can include kissing, holding, touching, manual stimulation, or oral-genital stimulation—but not coitus o Non-coital sexual expression provides an important way for many couples to relate to one another, often as an alternative intercourse o The incidence of oral-genital stimulation among teenagers has risen dramatically • More acceptable in dating situations and significantly less risky than coitus in reference to health, social, and emotional consequences o Potential health risks associated with oral sex, including transmission of infections like HIV, genital herpes and gonorrhea • Defining virginity as the absence of a single act (coitus) perpetuates the twin beliefs that ‘real sex’equals penile-vaginal intercourse and that virginity involves only heterosexual coitus o What about lesbians, gay men and heterosexuals o Who engage in other forms of sexual behaviour Ongoing Sexual Relationships • In the United States have shown that from early to late adolescence the percentage of teens involved in romantic relationships approximately doubles from about 30% in early adolescence to approximately 70% in late adolescence • Primary motivation for engaging in sexual relations was having a boyfriend/girlfriend they loved Sexual Intercourse • Premarital sex is defined as penile-vaginal intercourse that takes place between partners before they are married o Is misleading for 2 reasons o It excludes a broad array of non-coital heterosexual and homosexual activities = o Has connotations that may seem highly inappropriate o Avoid using the term ‘premarital sex’ Incidence of Adolescent Coitus • Nationwide surveys reveal a strong upward trend in adolescent coitus from the 1950’s through the 1970’s o This upward trend has leveled off and even decreased somewhat over the last 2 decades o The prevalence of condom use among sexually active high school students increased somewhat during this 16-year period (1991-2007) • Over the last several decades there has been a trend toward experiencing first coitus at an earlier age in both sexes, and this trend in consistent across a diverse range of ethnic groups • Studies have linked early sexual intercourse with increased risk for adverse health outcomes, including unintended pregnancies, increased probability of exposure to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased number of lifetime sexual partners Sexuality and Diversity: American Ethnic Diversity in Adolescent Sexual Experiences • AfricanAmerican teenagers are more likely to engage in adolescent coitus than either white or HispanicAmerican teenagers and at an earlier age • These ethnic differences in adolescent sexual experiences could be related more to Reasons for Engaging in Adolescent Coitus • Anumber of conditions motivate teenagers to engage in sexual intercourse o An accelerated output of sex hormones increases sexual desire and arousability in both sexes o Motivated by curiosity and a sense of readiness to experience intercourse o ½ the men and ¼ of the women consider sexual intercourse a natural expression of affection or love o Apush toward ‘adult’behaviours, peer pressure, pressure for dating partners, and a sense of obligation to a loyal partner Factors that Predispose Teenagers to Early or Late Onset of Coitus Early Onset of Coitus • Researchers have identified several factors that appear to predispose young adolescents to engage in sexual intercourse while very young • Psychosocial factors include: o Poverty o Family conflict or martial disruption o Teens living in single-parent or reconstituted families o Parent’s lack of education o Lack of parental supervision o Substance abuse (epically alcohol) o Low self-esteem o Sense of hopelessness • Other predisposing factors include: o Poor academic performance o Low educational expectations o Tolerance for antisocial behaviour o Association with delinquent peers o Exposure to a diet of television high in sexual content o Having been sexually victimized Late Onset of Coitus • The characteristics and experiences of adolescents who choose to delay onset of sexual intercourse are as follows: o Strong religious beliefs  Regular religious service attendance o Spiritual interconnectedness with friends o Late onset of puberty o Parental disapproval of teenage intercourse o good school performance o Higher socioeconomic status o High parental expectations o Adolescent’s belief that they had one more adults in their lives who cared about them • Apositive link between delayed onset of teenage sexual activity and high-quality parent- child relationships and communication Homosexuality • 6-11% of girls and 11-14% of boys report having experienced same-sex contact during their adolescent years o Most of these contacts took place between peers, but this does not entirely reflect later orientation o It can either be experimental and transitory or an expression of lifelong sexual orientation o Many gay/lesbians adolescents do not act on their sexual feelings until adulthood and may people with heterosexual orientations have one or more early homosexual experiences • Gay/lesbian/bisexual teenagers frequently encounter adverse societal reactions to their sexual orientation o Difficult to become comfortable with their developing sexuality • Usually high incidences of depression, loneliness, hostility toward others, substance abuse, and suicide attempts o Adolescents who are suspected of being homosexual are sometimes verbally abused, bullied, sexually harassed, or physically assaulted o Unable to talk openly with their parents about their sexual orientation o Experience anti-gay violence o Find it difficult to find confidants with whom they can sate their concerns or find guidance • Achieve self-acceptance of their sexual orientation within the context of powerful societal pressures not to accept and/or act on their orientation o More accepting of behaviours that vary form the dominant scripts for sexual and gender behaviour o Information about homosexuality is becoming increasingly available • Internet chat rooms and message boards can be especially helpful sources of support and constructive information o Homosexuality has become more visible and has been portrayed in more positive light in the media The Effect of AIDS on Teenage Sexual Behaviour • Many health professionals are concerned thatAmerican teens are particularly at risk for becoming infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS o Even though most teens know the basic facts aboutAIDS, this knowledge has not resulted in behaviour changes in many teenagers • ‘Personal fable’is relevant of adolescent risk taking and sexual behaviour o Cognitive egocentrism, an illusionary belief pattern in which they review themselves as somehow invulnerable and immune to the consequences of dangerous and risky behaviour • Behaviours that put young people at risk for HIV infections include: o Engaging in intercourse without condoms o Using alcohol, cocaine, and other drugs that impair judgement, reduce impulse control o Sharing needles with other intravenous drug users o Exposing themselves of multiple sexual partners o Choosing sexual partners discriminately Adolescent Pregnancy • The incidence of births to teenagers in the United States declined steadily from its peak in 1991 to its lowest level in 2005 o Teen births increased by 3% from 2005-2006 o Among Western industrialized nations, the United States has the highest rate of teen pregnancy o This adolescent pregnancy rate is 2-4X higher than several Western Negative Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy • Teenage pregnancy represents a great deal of human suffering, which is more likely to have physical complications including o Anemia o Toxemia o Hypertension o Hemorrhage o Miscarriage o Even death • Associated with prenatal and infant mortality rates • High risk for STIs because of a likely reduction in the use of condoms o Less than 30% and perhaps as few as 8% of sexually active pregnant adolescent women use condoms consistently during intercourse o Negative health consequences for both the youthful and her baby • The decision to keep her child often have serious negative effect on her education and on her financial resources o Teenage mothers are often underemployed and dependent on social services agencies • The negative effects of adolescent pregnancy is further exhibited in the lives of the resulting children o Teenage mothers often provide parenting of a lower quality than adult mothers do o At greater risk of having physical, cognitive, and emotional problems o More likely to demonstrate deficits in intellectual ability and school performance Use of Contraceptives • Many sexually activeAmerican teenagers do not use contraceptives consistently or effectively o Almost one half of sexually active teenage respondents to a recent national survey reported not using a condom during their last intercourse experience • Arecent survey found that adolescents today are more likely to use contraception than did their counterparts a decade or two ago o Revealed that many adolescents are uninformed about birth control choices o Compounded by the wide proliferation of abstinence-only sex education programs in U.S. schools o Athird of teens report receiving no formal instruction about birth control from any source • Misconceptions about possible health risks associated with some contraceptive methods, fear of the pelvic exam, embarrassment associated with seeking out and/or purchasing contraceptive devices, and concerns about confidentiality keep many teenagers from seeking birth control advice • Several factors or personal attributes have been found to be associated with adolescents’ use of non-use of birth control o Teenage women who experience infrequent intercourse are likely to be ineffective contraception users o Whose partners are several year older are significantly less likely o May result in ‘reduced power in a sexual relationship and reduced control over contraceptive decision-making’ o Experience intercourse at an early age • Sexually active adolescents in close, loving relationships are less likely o They lack the right to communicate about and/or control aspects of their sexual interaction with men, and thus lack of sexual assertiveness • Strong parent-child relationships that embrace healthy patterns of communications about everyday life, including sex and contraception, have been positively linked to adolescent contraceptive use o Academic success in school and having well-educated parents o Raised in families that stress personal responsibility for behaviours o The most knowledgeable about contraceptives Strategies for Reducing Teenage Pregnancy • Many authorities on adolescent sexuality agree that educational efforts designed to increase teenagers’awareness of contraceptive and other aspects of sexuality would be much more effective if they treated sexuality as a positive aspect of our humanity rather than something that is wrong or shameful o Sex is viewed as natural and healthy, and teenage sexual activity is widely accepted Answering Children’s Questions about Sex • Parents often ask us when they should start telling their children about sex o One answer is, when the child begins to ask questions o Putting off questions at this early age means that you may be confronted with the potentially awkward task of starting a dialogue on sexual matters at a later point in your children’s development • It can be helpful for parents to include information about sex (when appropriate) in everyday conversations o Aparent will feel it is important to being to talk about sex o Perhaps a good starting point is to share your true feelings with your child o An incubation period is often valuable, allowing a child to interpret your willingness to talk about sexuality • Parents sometimes tend to overload a child who expects a relatively brief and straightforward answer • It is appropriate to tell children that sexual interaction is pleasurable Initiating Conversations when Children do not ask Questions • Certain aspects of sexual maturation that a child may not consider until he/she experiences them o These include menstruation, first ejaculation, and nocturnal (night-time) orgasms • It is important that youngsters be aware of these physiological changes before they actually happen • Teenagers often have difficulty communicating with their parents about sex, for a number of reasons, including: o Embarrassment o Concern that their parents will assume that they are sexually active o Thinking that their parents will not understand them • MostAmericans parents do not provide adequate sex education to their children o The gap created by lack of information in the homes is likely to be filled with incorrect information from peers and other sources o This can have serious consequences • There is no clear evidence that sex education in the home contributes to either irresponsible sexual activity or an increased likelihood of adolescent sexual behaviour o Positive parent-adolescent communication about sex has been linked to decreased risk of contracting STIs o More effective and consistent use of birth control o Decreased incidence of teenage pregnancies School­Based Sex Education • Most efforts to provide sex education in schools have utilized one of 2 principles approaches: comprehensive sex education and abstinence-only programs • Comprehensive sex education treats abstinence as merely one option for youths in a curriculum that provides broad-based information about such topics as sexual maturation; contraception; abortion; strategies for effective decision-making and for saying no to unwanted sex; STIs; relationship issues; and sexual orientation • In abstinence-only programs, youths are instructed to abstain from sex until marriage and discussions of contraceptives are either prohibited entirely • An overwhelming majority of parents and other adults support including sex education in schools, only a majority of U.S. schools offer comprehensive sex education courses Chapter 13: Sexuality and the Adult Years Single Living • Remaining single as an alternative to marriage has become an increasingly prominent lifestyle in the United States o Single adults age 15+ comprise 44.4% of the population in the United States o 33% of men and 25% of women 30-34 years old have never been married o This is 4X the percentage of the unmarried in 1970 • Not long ago, women who pursued higher education were less likely to marry o However, today they are more likely to marry than are women with lower levels of education o They tend to marry later due to their desire to establish themselves professionally before marriage • Single living encompasses a range of sexual patterns and differing degrees of personal satisfaction, some people: o Who live alone remain celibate by choice or because of lack of available partners o Are involved in a long-term, sexually exclusive relationship with one partner o Practice serial monogamy, moving through a succession of sexually exclusive relationships o Develop a primary relationship with one partner and have occasional sex with others o Prefer concurrent sexual and emotional involvements with a number of different partners • Married people experience higher levels of sexual activity and satisfaction than singles, but many singles claim that their sex lives are more exciting • Regarding one-night stands: o 81% of men said that they enjoyed the experience o 54% of women were much more likely to say that they regretted it Singles and the Internet • Internet sites has greatly altered the “singles scene” o Each month, over 40% of single adults in the United States visit dating sites • The largest demographic are higher-income college-educated individuals • The fastest-growing segment of Internet dating traffic is the 50-and-older population Cohabitation • The number of people choosing cohabitation and societal acceptance has increased significantly o Cohabitation: living together and having a sexual relationship without being married o The most common reasons are to spend more time together and for convenience o Almost half of expect to marry their roommate • Cohabitation is most common among adults in their mid-20 o About 25% of people in this age group • Men with a high school education or less are more likely to live conjointly with women • Cohabitation is usually a short-term arrangement o Only 33% live together for 2 years o Only 10% do so for 5 or more years • Domestic partnership: is a term applied to heterosexual and homosexual people who live with a partner in the same household in a committed relationship but who are not legally married • Older heterosexual couples may cohabit rather than marry because remarriage can mean: o Higher income tax rates o The end of alimony payments o The loss of spousal pension, military, and social security benefits Similarities and Differences between Cohabitation and Marriage • Cohabiting women tend to have partners who are less or as educated as them o Married women tend to have husbands who are better educated than they are o The difference between these two women is that greater commitment between married partners may produce more restrictive requirements for a partner • Research reports that people who live together initially have a frequency of conflict and level of relationship satisfaction similar to those of married people o Individuals who live together tend to have:  Less traditional gender-role attitudes  Less desire to have children  More equity in doing household tasks o However, research has shown that the longer people cohabit without getting married, the greater the instability, unhappiness, and lack of interaction • Most cohabiting partners expect their relationship to be sexually exclusive o However, data indicates that cohabiting individuals are less likely than married people to be monogamous The Impact of Cohabitation before Marriage • Most research indicates that people who lived together before getting married report more difficulty in their marriages and are at greater risk of getting divorced than people who did not live together prior to marriage o Marriages preceded by living together are 50% more likely to end in divorce o Exception: Heterosexual couples in which the woman’s only sexual partner is the man she lived with and married do not have an increased risk of divorce • People who had a child while cohabiting experienced lower-quality marital relationships than did couples who did not live together before marriage • Research shows that marriage involves a higher degree of commitment and stability than does cohabitation, which may be one reason that marriage continues to enjoy widespread appeal o About 96% of adults in the United States marry Marriage • Marriage is found in virtually every society • It has served several functions for society and individuals, it provide: o Provides stable family units, in which children  Acquire knowledge about their society’s rules  Acquire mores through the teachings of their married parents o Functions as an economic partnership that integrates:  Child rearing  Performance of household tasks  Earning an income into one family unit o Defines inheritance rights to family property • For thousands of years, marriage has been about property and politics instead of personal happiness and love o Parents in elite classes arranged their children’s marriages to:  Develop alliances between families  Consolidate wealth and political power  Maintain peace between countries o Marriage in lower classes was also an economic arrangement:  Building a labor pool of children  Combining skills, resources, and helpful in-laws Marriage in Current Collectivist and Individualist Cultures  Two opposing characteristics differentiate cultures from each other: o Collectivism o Individualism  Whether a culture is collectivist or individualist influences its views regarding the purpose of marriage  Collectivist cultures: o India, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, the Middle East, and other parts ofAsia andAfrica o Emphasize group, or collective, goals over individual aspirations o The primary purpose of marriage is to unite families rather than just two people o Individuals are expected not to put their own feelings for someone above the more important commitments to the needs of family, community, or religion o Parents in collectivist cultures often arrange the marriages of their children  Individualist cultures o Canada, Europe,Australia, “European” Brazil, and the United States o Stress individual desires and goals over family interests o Place considerably more emphasis on feelings of love as a basis for marriage  It was not until the end of the 1700s that personal choice based on love replaced family interests as the ideal basis of marriage in the Western world Polygamy • Collectivist cultures are likely to practice polygamy: a marriage between one man and several women o Polygamy has been the most common form of marriage across the ages o It remains prevalent today in the Middle East and other parts ofAfrica o The religion of Islam allows a man to have up to four wives; the man’s personal wealth and his ability to provide for numerous wives usually determine how many he marries • The opponents view polygamy as a cover for having extramarital affairs o Women’s desire to have love and sexual satisfaction without sharing a man with other women is the primary motivation for the opposition and reflects a trend toward individualism o Polygamy tends to negatively affect women, women report  More depression, anxiety, and problems in family functioning  Less self-esteem and marital o The spread of HIV throughout the family is of great concern • Few cultures recognize unions between one woman and several men (polyandry), and even fewer approve of sexual activity outside of marriage o Amatriarchal culture in China turns common concepts of marriage upside down Sexuality and Diversity: Where Women Choose • The Mosuo society is an ancient matriarchal society: a society in which women carry the family name through the generations and govern the economic and social affairs of the community o The population is 50,000 and it has lasted nearly 2000 years • All of the sons and daughters of each woman live their entire lives together in their mother’s house • After an initiation ceremony into adulthood at age 13, each girl is given her own room in the family house o There she can welcome lovers of her choice to come in the evening and stay overnight with her o Each dawn, her lover returns to his own mother’s home, where he lives o This tradition is called “walking marriage” • Men never initiate, but they can decline an invitation • When a Mosuo woman becomes pregnant and bears a child, the child stays in the family house of the woman’s mother o The woman’s brothers help raise their sister’s children o The biological father assumes no fathering role except for his sisters’children • The only reasons men and women get together are for love and sexual intimacy, not for Marriage in the Western World • Marriage based on love promises: o Regular companionship o Sexual gratification o Aloving and enduring involvement o Parenting options o Security of a legitimized social institution • Married people are happier and healthier, both physically and psychologically o Married men move up the career ladder faster and earn more money than single men o Individuals in distressed marriages are in poorer health and have greater health risks which has a cumulative effect Interracial Marriage • Miscegenation: sex between members of different races, whether or not the people involved were married o Was illegal until the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated those laws in 1967 o Interracial marriage has increased dramatically  From less than 1% of all marriages in 1970 to over 5% in 2000 • Public approval of interracial marriage has risen significantly, from 54% in 1995 to 80% in 2009 o Younger people are, in general, more accepting • Studies found that interracial and same-race couples were similar in conflict and attachment styles o However, interracial couples reported significantly higher relationship satisfaction o They were less burdened with problems and more effective in coping with problems • Ethnic and racial communities sometimes consider minority individuals who pair with white partners “race traitors” or “whitewashed” o 30% of whiteAmericans still oppose black-white marriages o Such attitudes are less common among young adults o One in 19 children born today is of mixed race  Compared with 1 in 100 in 1970 Changing Expectations and Marital Patterns • Some reasons for the contradictions between ideal marriage and actual marriage practices have to do with changes in both the expectations for marriage and the social framework of marriage • Contemporary couples usually marry for love and enter marriage with expectations for fulfilling their sexual, emotional, spiritual, social, financial, and perhaps co-parenting needs • People’s expectations for marriage have risen, our society’s support networks for marriage have declined o Extended families and small communities have become less close-knit and supportive, placing increased demands on marriage to meet a variety of needs o Couples are often hard-pressed to find outside resources for help with household tasks, child-care assistance, financial aid, and emotional support o People now live much longer than they did in the past • The arrival of children poses significant challenges to couples o An analysis of 90 studies found a 42% drop in marital satisfaction following the birth of a first child, and a slightly smaller drop with each additional child Predicting Martial Satisfaction • Gottman created criteria to predict martial success through interviews, but he did not study homosexual couples o As spouses discussed a problem area in their marriage, they were videotaped and monitored for physiological changes o He identified a number of patterns that predict marital discord, unhappiness, and separation • He was able to predict with 90% accuracy whether a couple will separate within the first few years of marriage • These patterns included the following: o Aratio of at least five positive interactions to each negative interaction o Facial expressions of disgust, fear, or misery o High levels of heart rate o Defensive behaviors, such as making excuses and denying responsibility for disagreement o Verbal expressions of contempt by the wife o Stonewalling by the husband (showing no response when his wife expresses her concerns) • The 5:1 ratio o When couples maintain or improve this ratio, they can have long-lasting, satisfying marriages regardless of their particular relationship style • Women typically initiate discussions about concerns and problems in the marriage o To the extent that women use a “softened start-up,” a calm, kind, diplomatic beginning to the discussion, they have stable and happy marriages o Conversely, men who accept influence from their wives end up in long-term good marriages  Husbands who reject their wives’requests and concerns find themselves in unstable, unhappy marriages that are more likely to lead to divorce Sexual Behaviour and Satisfaction in Marriage • Married women and men in the United States today appear to be engaging in a wider repertoire of sexual behaviors and enjoying sexual interaction more • The frequency and duration of sexual play (foreplay) before intercourse have increased, including: o Oral stimulation of the breasts o Manual stimulation of the genitals o Oral–genital contact • In relationships other than marriage, in which sexual satisfaction is associated with relationship satisfaction, love commitment, and stability • Men and women in marriages are not equally satisfied with their sexual lives o Research indicates that married women report lower levels of sexual satisfaction than do their husbands • Liu speculated that the lower satisfaction wives express stems from two factors: o Wives experience orgasm in fewer sexual experiences than their husbands do o Women typically invest more time and energy in the relationship and may have greater expectations for the quality of the sexual relationship • Sexless unions are not uncommon in marriage o Countless other activities can reduce the time and energy a couple has for intimate sharing o Alack of sexual interaction does not necessarily mean the marriage is bad, because for some sex isn’t a high priority Non­monogamy • Non-monogamy: refers to sexual interaction outside of a couple relationship, whether the couple are married, living together, or identify themselves as a couple o Extramarital relationship is a term used only for married couples o Non-monogamy makes no distinction between the many ways in which extramarital sexual activity occurs • The peak rate of non-monogamous relationships occurs when individuals are 30-60 • Most societies have restrictive norms pertaining to extramarital sex, norms typically more restrictive for women than for men Sexu nlit olitisi ersitlM axrtamge rral Sexe­alt  io pteser Cultures • W heyAsosegirinsghe rigettoAmustylis’sArportmntLand openly accept extramarital sexual relationships for both wives and husbands o It would end discrimination in marriage o They welcome the variety in experience and the break in monotony offered by • Laws haextramarital involvementsreater equality and privacy in marriage • U.S.o Many report increased appreciation of, and attachment to, their spouse as a o Freedom of religion guarantees the right of every church not to marry any specific couple for any reason • The Polynesian Marquesans, although not open advocates of extramarital affairs, neveo Conversely, no religion should dictate to our government which couples can obtain marriage licenses o They openly endorse the practices of partner swapping and sexual hospitality • The Turu of central Tanzania regard marriage primarily as a cooperative economic andhe United States lack federal benefits that married heterosexual couples have, including: social bond o Affection between husband and wife is generally thought to be out of place o They believe that the marital relationship is endangered by the instability of love o aCnhildceustony o Immigration rightsalled Mbuya, which allows them to seek affection outside the home without threatening the stability of the primary marriage o Joint insurance policies for health, home, or auto o Status as next of kin for hospital visits o Making funeral arrangements for a partner o Psychological benefits also exist • Divorce rates based on legal same-sex marriages o In 2003, Massachusetts (legal) had the lowest divorce rate in the US:  5.7 divorces per 1,000 married people o States with strong opposition to same-sex marriage have the highest rates: Consensual Extramarital Relationships • Consensual extramarital relationships occur in marriages where both partners know about and agree to sexual involvements outside the marriage • There are three arrangements: o Swinging o Open marriage o Polyamory Swinging • Swinging: the exchange of marital partners for sexual interactions o The emphasis is on recreational, non-emotionally-intimate encounters o Couples participate at the same location • Common reasons for engaging in swinging include: o Sexual variety o Fulfilling fantasies • Men were more likely than women to have initially suggested swinging and over half the women considered themselves bisexual Open Marriage and Polyamory • Open marriage: in which wife and husband agree to have intimate and sexual relationships outside their marriage • Polyamory: multiple consensual sexual relationships of trios, groups of couples, and intentionally created families that emphasize emotional commitment o All parties are expected to communicate fully about whom they are involved with and what they do together Non­Consensual Extramarital Relationships • Non-consensual extramarital sex: a married person engaged in a sexual relationship outside the marriage, without the consent/knowledge of their spouse • Labels for this behaviour include: o Cheating o Adultery o Infidelity o Having an affair o Fooling around • 90% of the general US public say that extramarital sex is ‘always’wrong How common are Extramarital Affairs? • It is difficult to determine accurately how many people have affairs because they are reluctant to admit it • Americans age 18-59 reported rates of extramarital involvement at some time during marriage of 25% of married men and 15% of married women Why Do People have Affairs? • Intrinsic conflicts in human nature contribute: humans are promiscuous • Sometimes non-consensual extramarital relationships are motivated simply by a desire for excitement and variety, even when an individual has no particular complaints • Person’s desire to re-establish his or her sense of individuality and autonomy • The need to confirm that they are still desirable to members of the other sex • People who are highly dissatisfied with their marriages • Affairs with strong emotional involvement are also more likely to lead to divorce • Affairs provide the impetus to end a marriage that is no longer satisfying • The unavailability of sex within the marriage • Alengthy separation, a debilitating illness, or a partner’s inability or unwillingness to relate sexually • Are there differences between people who are sexually exclusive and those who have sex outside their primary relationship? o Characteristics of the person rather than of the relationship o Age is important: Individuals between the ages of 18-30 were twice as likely to have an affair as people over 50 o Men who had been involved in affairs had a greater incidence of substance abuse and expressed more sexual dissatisfaction in their marriages o More permissive sexual attitudes and higher interest in sex • Women were as likely as men to engage in extramarital sex • People are more likely to be unfaithful o If they have greater access to potential partners at work, through out-of-town travel, or by living in a large city o When individuals have weak ties to their spouse’s friends, family, and activities and are not involved in a religious community • Couples in which it was occurring had more marital instability, dishonesty, arguments about trust, self-centeredness, and time spent apart • Which came first—the dissatisfaction or the infidelity? o It is just as possible for the dissatisfaction to have increased because of the infidelity as for the dissatisfaction to have motivated the infidelity The Internet’s Role in Affairs • The opportunity for an individual to develop intimate, secrete relationships outside their committed relationship has taken on new dimensions thanks to internet • 41% of adults (more men than women) don’t consider relationships limited to the internet as cheating The Impact of Extramarital Sex on Individuals and Marriage • Involvement in an extramarital affair can have serious consequences for the participants, including: o Loss of self-respect o Severe guilt o Stress associated with leading a secret life o Damage to reputation o Loss of love o Complications of sexually transmitted infections • The secrecy and lying (even by omission) erode the connection between spouses and amplify emotional intensity and the illusion of closeness to the affair partner o They become more distant to whomever they lie to (usually the spouse) • Marital therapists hold differing opinions about whether unfaithful spouses should disclose an affair to their wife or husband o However, research suggests that couples who come to marital therapy because of an affair benefit even more • Marriages usually fare better when an unfaithful spouse proactively discloses an affair to the other spouse than when the other spouse discovers it on his or her own • The betrayed spouse can experience a variety of emotions, including: o Feelings of inadequacy and rejection, extreme anger, resentment, shame, and jealousy o Psychological distress for both men and women was greater if their partners had affairs that violated their expectations • However, the discovery of infidelity does not necessarily end a marriage or ultimately erode the quality of a marriage o In some cases such a crisis is beneficial, in that it motivates a couple to search for, and attempt to resolve, sources of discord in the relationship Divorce • Almost 96% of adults in the United States today have married during their lifetime, o But 43% of first marriages are predicted to end within 15 years • Divorce has increased dramatically since the 1950s, when ¼ marriages ended in divorce o By 1977 the ratio was one divorce to every two marriages o Since then the ratio of divorces to marriages has tended to level off and has held relatively steady Explaining the High Divorce Rate • One frequently mentioned cause is increased expectations for marital and sexual fulfillment, which have caused people to be less willing to persist in unsatisfying marriages • Another cause is the comparative ease of obtaining no-fault divorces since the liberalization of divorce laws in the 1970s o It has become a simpler, less expensive legal process o The social stigma of divorce has lessened • Because divorce has become more common, more children have been raised by divorced parents o Research shows that people raised by divorced parents have more negative attitudes about marriage and are themselves more likely to divorce • Parents who stay together in unhappy marriages may not help prevent their children from divorcing a future spouse o Young adults who believe that their parents should end their marriage are more likely to have positive views of divorce, even when their parents have negative views • The increased economic independence of women increases the importance of relationship satisfaction over financial dependence in women’s decisions to divorce • People who marry in their teen years are more than twice as likely to divorce as those who wed in their 20s o Individuals who marry after age 30 have even lower divorce rates. • Currently the average age of first marriage in the United States is 25.8 for women and 27.1 for men o The leveling off and even slight decline in the U.S. divorce rate reflects, in part, the influence of older age at first marriage o The lower the educational level, the higher the divorce rate Reasons People give to Divorce • The respondents gave infidelity as the most commonly reported cause of divorce, other factors include: o Poor general quality of the relationship o Lack of communication o Incompatibility o Personality clashes o Growing apart o Serious problems, such as drinking, drug use, and mental and physical abuse • Men and women tended to give different reasons for divorce o Women were more likely to report that their husbands’problematic behavior led to divorce o Men were more likely to say that they did not know what caused the divorce • Socioeconomic status (SES) was another variable resulting in differences o High-SES divorced individuals were more likely to attribute their divorces to lack of love and communication, incompatibility, and their spouses’self-centeredness, o Low-SES divorced individuals described financial problems, abuse, and drinking Adjusting to Divorce/Break­up of Long­Term Relationships • Divorce often represents: the loss of o Hope that the relationship will late o One’s spouse o Lifestyle o Security of familiarity o Part of one’s identity o changes in parenting time and circumstances • The loss a person feels during a divorce or a breakup of a meaningful relationship is often comparable to the loss experienced when a loved one dies • In either case, one undergoes a grieving process o Initially, a person may experience shock o Feeling of disorientation—a sense that one’s entire world has turned upside down Volatile emotions o Feelings of guilt o Loneliness o Asense of relief and acceptance (after several months or a year) • The end of an important relationship or marriage can offer an opportunity to reassess oneself and one’s past, a process that may lead to a new life Sexuality and Aging • Some women and men who understand the nature of these changes accept them with equanimity o Others observe them with concern • Why has aging in our society and in other societies often been associated with sexless- ness? o U.S. culture is still influenced by a philosophy that equates sexuality with procreation and makes it seem not quite acceptable for older people to have and express sexual needs o The media usually link love, sex, and romance to the young The Double Standard and Aging • The assumptions and prejudices implicit in the sexual double standard continue into old age, imposing a particular burden on women o Although a woman’s sexual capabilities can continue throughout her lifetime, the cultural image of an erotically appealing woman is commonly one of youth • The sexual attractiveness of men is often considered enhanced by aging o Gray hair and facial wrinkles are often thought to look distinguished on men— signs of accumulated life experience and wisdom o It is relatively common for a man’s achievements and social status—both of which usually increase with age—to be closely associated with his sexual appeal • The pairing of powerful older men and young beautiful women reflects this double standard of aging Sexual Activity in Later Years • What does research show about the reality of sexuality among older people in our own society? o Sexual interest and activity continue as a natural part of aging • Asample of adults over age 60, 61% of those who were sexually active said that their sex life today was either the same as or more physically satisfying than in their 40s • Research on married women age 50 and older found that their sexual satisfaction correlated with: o Overall marital satisfaction o Greater frequency of orgasm for themselves and their spouses o Greater frequency of sexual intercourse and non-coital sexual activity • Frequency of sexual activity decrease significantly until after age 74 • 22% of men and 14% of women said that finding someone to marry or live with was their most important reason for dating • Research reveals that people who have contact with close friends—a “family of choice”—live longer than people who rely only on a spouse and children • Sexual activity of older adults is, unfortunately, evidenced by the rising incidence of HIV/AIDS in this group o About 61% of sexually active older singles say they have unprotected sex Factors in Maintaining Sexual Activity • Lifelong consistent sexual activity my reflect an overall higher sex drive and positive attitudes toward sexuality • The most crucial factor influencing sexual activity is health o Poor health and illness have a greater effect on sexual functioning • Older adults often find new techniques for maintaining or enhancing their enjoyment of sex despite progressive physiological changes Homosexual Relationships in Later Years • Some gay men and lesbians are better prepared for coping with the adjustments of aging than are many heterosexual men and women, because having faced the adversities of belonging to a stigmatized group throughout their lives may help prepare them to deal with the losses that come with aging o Many have created a more extensive network of supportive friends • Astudy of gay men revealed a change over time toward fewer sexual partners, but frequency of sexual activity remained quite stable, and 75% were satisfied with their current sex lives • Research shows that most older lesbians prefer women of similar age as partners o Therefore, an older lesbian is less likely to be widowed than is a heterosexual woman, because women tend to live longer than men o Women are less likely than men to base attraction on a physical ideal, so the double standard of aging is less of an issue for lesbians Widowhood • Widowhood usually occurs later in life o In most heterosexual couples the man dies first o There are more than four widows for every widower • Older men without partners often seek young female companions, which reduces the pool of potential partners for older heterosexual women • Widowed people typically do not have the sense of having failed at marriage o The grief may be more intense, and the quality of the emotional bond to the deceased mate is often quite high Chapter 4: Emotional Development and Temperament An Overview of Emotions and Emotional Development • Emotions have several components including: o Feelings: generally positive or negative in character o Physiological correlates: including  Changes in heart rate  Sweat gland activity  Brain wave activity and so forth o Cognitions: that elicit or accompany feelings and physiological changes o Goals: the desire to take such actions as  Escaping noxious stimuli  Approaching pleasant ones  Influencing the behaviour of others  Communicating needs  Or desires and so on Two Theories of Emotion and Emotional Development • The two theories are the: 1) Discrete emotions theory 2) Functionalist perspective Discrete Emotions Theory • Discrete emotions theory: o Atheory of emotions specifying that specific emotions are biologically programmed o Has strong evolutionary overtones • Charles Darwin proposed that most basic emotions have some adaptive value o Modern proponents of discrete emotions theory agree • Each ‘discrete’emotion is accompanied by a particular set of facial/bodily reactions and is apparent very early in life Functionalist Perspective • Functionalist perspective: believe that newborns emotional lives may consist mainly of global experience of positively (excitement) and negativity (distress) • They propose that the most basic purpose of emotions is to influence behaviour and promote some action toward achieving a goal o And they emphasize environmental influences behaviour on emotional development • They emphasize that successful adaption to their environments often requires children to control their emotions rather than expressing them freely o Involve learning to regulate emotions to maintain social harmony or achieve other important goals o Expressions of emotions do become more socially appropriate with age, as children learn the circumstance under which it is (un)acceptable to display particular emotions Appearance and Development of Discrete Emotions • In one study, more than half the mothers of 1-month-olds claimed that their babies displayed at least 5 distinct emotional expressions: o Interest o Surprise o Joy o Anger o Fear • Although these data appear to be quite consistent with the premise of discrete emotion theory, critics argue that mothers sometimes read into their infant’s behaviour too much • Carroll Izard and colleagues studied infants’emotional expressions by videotaping babies’responses to such events as grasping an ice cube, having a toy taken away, or seeing their mothers return after a separation o Raters would identify the emotions the infant is experiencing from the facial expression the infant displays o Different adult raters see the same emotion in the baby’s face • Infants respond in predictable ways to particular kinds of experiences o Soft sounds and novel visual elicit smiles and interest o Vaccinations and other painful stimuli will elicit distress • Babies also express emotions vocally • Adults can usually tell what positive emotion a baby is experiencing from facial expressions, but specific negative emotions are much more difficult to pinpoint on the basis of facial cues alone Sequencing of Discrete Emotions in the First Year • Primary/basic emotions: the set of emotions present at birth or emerging in the first year, such as o Interest o Distress o Disgust o Contentment • Other primary emotions emerge later, at age 2-7 such as: o Anger o Sadness o Joy o Surprise o Fear • Primary emotions emerge at roughly the same age in all normal infants and are displayed and interpreted similarly in all cultures • Primary emotions changes considerably over time from the form it took and the functions it served when it first appeared Development of Positive Emotion: Happiness • Age: 2 months o Babies begin to daily social smiles that are most often seen interaction with caregivers who are likely to be delighted at a baby’s positive reaction to them • Age: 3 months o Babies are more likely to smile at real people, rather than puppets • Age: 3—6 months o Babies show more open-mouthed, big smiles while gazing or interacting pleasantly with a smiling caregiver • Age: 6-7 months o Infants begin to reserve their biggest smiles for familiar companions and my often seem wary rather than happy to encounter a person they don’t know o Infants regularly use smiles and other signs of positive affect as social gestures Development of Negative Emotions • Negative emotions begin to appear over the first 6 months of life • Anger o Age: 2 months  Red-faced anger is sometimes seen in the faces of infants who receive painful stimuli or who cannot exert the control over toys and other events o Age: 6 months  These angry reactions become increasingly intense by the middle of the first year • Sadness o Age: 2-6 months  Infants become sullen in some of the same situations that elicit angry displays  Or when they cannot seem to elicit a positive response from a caregiver, such as when a caregiver remains ‘still face’ o Research shows that expressions of sadness are common in 2-3 month old infants of caregivers who are chronically depressed  Infants may begin to match their caregivers depressive symptoms, becoming more sullen and socially unresponsive over time • Why do expressions of anger and sadness increase with age? o Infants increasingly recognize that they can exert control over objects and people in their environment, they begin to react negatively to a loss of control or to people who are thwarting their objectives o By age 3-4 months, infants expect caregivers to respond to their social overtures and not doing so is a violation of an infant’s learned expectancies o By 4 months of age, anger and sadness are clearly discrete emotions that convey different messages and have different psychophysiological consequences  Anger shows few signs of stress in infants  Sadness shows an increase in signs of stress in infants Fear and Fearful Reactions • Fear is one the last primary emotions to emerge o Fear occurs when an infant considers a person/object/situation to be a distinct threat o It begins to show at 6-7 months • There are two particular fears that most infants display between 7-8 months of age: 1) Stranger anxiety: a wary/fretful reaction that infants/toddlers often display when approached by an unfamiliar person  Most infants reaction positively to strangers until they form their first emotional attachment, and then become apprehensive shortly thereafter 2) Separation anxiety: a wary/fretful reaction that infants/toddlers often display when separated from person to whom they are attached  It normally appears at 6-8 months and peaks at 14-18 months  It becomes less frequent and less intense throughout infancy and the preschool period • Why does stranger/separation anxiety occur at 6-10 months of age? There are 2 main viewpoints: o Evolutionary viewpoint o Cognitive-developmental viewpoint • Evolutionarily theorists claim that many situations that infants face qualify as natural clues to danger situations o They have been so frequently associated with danger throughout human evolutionary history that a fear/avoidance response has become biologically programmed o Situations that infants may be programmed to fear include:  Strange faces/settings/circumstances • Cognitive-developmental theorists view stranger/separation anxiety as natural outgrowths of an infant’s perceptual and cognitive development o Kagan suggests that 6-10 month olds have finally developed stable schemas for:  Faces of familiar companions  These companions whereabouts at home o Suddenly a strange face that is discrepant with the infant’s schemas for caregivers appears and upsets children because  They can’t explain who this is  What has become of familiar caregivers • Stranger/separation anxiety are complex emotional reactions that may stem in part from: o An infant’s general apprehension of the unfamiliar (evolutionary viewpoint), and o His inability to explain who a stranger may be or what has become of a familiar companion • Individual differences in fearfulness often reflect variations in o Temperament o The quality/security of infant’s attachment relationships Development of Self­Conscious Emotions • Toddlers at 2-3 years display secondary/complex emotions, such as: o Embarrassment o Shame o Guilt o Envy o Pride • Secondary/complex emotions are also called self-conscious emotions because each involves some damage/enhancement of the sense of self • Lewis believes that embarrassment will not emerge until the child can recognise herself in the mirror or a photograph o Whereas self-evaluative emotions such as shame, guilt and pride both require self- recognition and understanding of rules of standards for evaluating one’s conduct • Evaluative embarrassment stems from a negative evaluation of one’s performance and is much more stressful from ‘simple’embarrassment of being the object of other’s attention • Distinctions between shame and guilt include: o Guilt  Implies we have in some way failed to live up to our obligations to other people  It focuses on the interpersonal consequences of wrongdoings  It is based on a concern for others o Shame  Is more self-focused  Causes children to focus negatively on themselves and may motivate them to hide out and avoid other people Parental Influence on Self­Conscious Emotions • Parents can clearly influence a child’s susceptibility to particular self-conscious emotions • Allessandri and Lewis observed mothers’reactions as their 4-5 year olds succeeded or failed at a variety of puzzles o Mothers who accentuated the negative by being critical of failures tended to have children who displayed  High levels of shame after a failure  Little pride after success o Mothers who were more inclined to react positively to successes had children who displayed  More pride in accomplishments  Less shame after failures • Clear rule-breaking and other moral transgressions have the potential to make children feel guilty, shameful or both, but these depended on how parents reacted o Parents who belittle their children after these transgressions had children who felt  Ashamed o Parents who criticize their children’s inappropriate behaviour had children who felt  Guilty • Children are most likely to display self-evaluative emotions when an adult is present to observe their conduct Later Developments in Emotional Expressivity • One change in emotional life is the common assumption that developing persons become increasingly moody and show a dramatic increase in negative emotions as they reach sexual maturity and make the transition from childhood to adolescence o However, this downward trend in ‘mood’has generally leveled off by mid- adolescence and becomes more positive once again in early adulthood and beyond • Why might young adolescents suddenly experience more negative emotions? o Physiological and hormonal changes that accompany sexual maturation may contribute o However, researchers believe that a dramatic increase in daily hassles with parents, teachers and peers is primarily responsible for this • Elevated levels of stress are also major contributors to the negative affect of adolescents who become seriously depressed o Girls may be more susceptible then boys to depression for 2 reasons:  They report more stressful experiences with family members, peers and romantic partners  Reacted more negatively to these kinds of stressors Identifying and Understanding Others’ Emotions • As children mater, they become much better at recognizing others’feelings and at properly interpreting the causes and the functions served by their own and other’s displays of emotion • Being able to do this enables us to infer how people are feeling and tailor our behaviour to achieve our objectives Early Identification and Interpretation of Emotions • Infants first notice and respond to emotional expressions of other people at birth or shortly thereafter o Such as when crying when other infants cry and reacting to parents high-pitched tones • There is some debate about then babies begin to recognize and interpret the facial expressions of emotion that others display o 3-month-olds prefer to look at photos of happy faces rather than photos of neutral, sad or angry ones  However, their looking preference may simply reflect their power of visual discrimination o There are some evidence to suggest that young infants do attend and react appropriately to more natural displays of emotion  3-month-olds will discriminate their mothers’expressions when these facial configurations are accompanied by an appropriate tone of voice  4-month-olds can discriminate changes in a stranger’s emotion  7-month-olds show different patterns of brain wave activity to photos posing different emotions Social Referencing • 7-10 months display social referencing: the use of parent’s emotional expressions to gain information or infer the meaning of otherwise ambiguous situations o This soon extends to people other than parents • After year 1, infants will typically approach and play with unfamiliar toys if a nearby stranger is smiling o However, they are more likely to avoid objects if the stranger displays a fearful expression • Some investigators have wondered whether adult emotional signals might not be interpreted as simple commands that infants response to rather than as active information seeking on the infant’s part Emotions, Emotional Understanding, and Early Social Development • Ababy’s displays of emotion serves a communicative function that is likely to affect the behaviour of caregivers • Infant’s emotions are adaptive in that they promote social contact and help caregivers to adult their behaviour to the infant’s needs and goals • The emotional expressions of infants help their close companions to communicate and ‘get to know each other’ • The beauty of social referencing is that children can quickly acquire knowledge in this way Later Developments in Identifying Others’ Emotions • Before age 3, children are had at identifying and labelling the emotional expression posed by people in pictures or on puppets’faces o This reflects the fact that 2-3 year olds have not acquired the words to label various emotions o Between ages 3-5, children become better at this o 8-year olds are as skilled as adults in this task Understanding the Causes of Emotions • Acommon method for assessing child’s understanding of the causes of emotions is to expose them to short stories that are accompanies by pictures /drawings and asking them to describe or pick out a face showing how the story character feels o Even 3-year-olds are good at recognizing positive and negative events cause certain emotions • Children are often not very good at identifying situations likely to evoke: o Anger o Fear o Surprise o Disgust • Everyone agrees that: o Children learn a great deal about the causes of all primary emotions during the preschool period o But it may be well into late-elementary school or middle-school years before they are proficient at telling us the situation and circumstances likely to evoke pride, guilt, shame, envy, jealously and other complex emotions Other Milestones in Emotional Understanding • 4-5 year olds know that a person’s current feelings (especially negative) may stem from reflections on past events • As grade-school children become better at using personal, situational, and historical information to understand and interpret emotions, they achieve several important breakthroughs in emotional understanding o Children age 5-7 understand that they can feel 2 compatible emotions at the same time, such as excitement and happiness o Children age 8 recognize that the same situation may elicit different emotions from different individuals o Children age 6-10 begin to acknowledge that people can have mixed feelings about the same situation • This acknowledgment of mixed emotions implies a stronger respect for rules and obligations among older children, as well as knowledge that compliance with or violations of rules can have a strong impact on such moral emotions as pride, shame and guilt Parental Contributions to Early Emotional Understanding • Conversations between parents and children about emotions and their causes play a crucial role in fostering children’s emotional understanding, beginning in infancy when children start to talk about their feelings • Mothers may often talk about desires their toddlers express and about the emotions that accompany the thwarting or fulfillment of these desires o Mothers who often use this kind of ‘desire’language when conversing with them are, by age 2, already better at recognizing the emotions of story characters at recognizing the emotions of story characters • By discussing the emotions of storybook characters with young children or encouraging them to reminisce about their own memorable emotional experiences, parents are teaching o Children to recognize discrete emotions o Understand the events that caused these emotions, and o Learn the circumstances under which it is (un)acceptable to express particular emotions • 3-5 year-olds whose mothers use a more elaborate style and open-ended questions are much better able to recognize and discriminate others’facial expressions of emotion and are better at predicting how a puppet will react emotionally to particular events Learning to Regulate Emotions • Regulate one’s emotions is crucial to achieving one’s personal objectives, but will also affect the character of social interactions a person is likely to have and the kinds of social; relationships and alliances likely to form • Emotional self-regulation: o Involves the capacity to control emotions and to adjust emotional arousal to an appropriate level of intensity to achieve one’s aims o Involves the ability to manage our feelings, our physiological reactions associated with these feelings, our emotion-related cognitions and our emotion-related behaviour • The emergence of emotional self-regulation is a long and involved process that is heavily influenced by lessons learned both within and outside the home Early Socialization and Emotional Regulation • In the first few months of life, it is caregivers who regulate babies’emotional arousal by controlling their exposure to events likely to overstimulate them and by rocking, stroking and holding their over-aroused infants o 6-month-olds manage to reduce at least some of their negative arousal by turning their bodies away from unpleasant stimuli or by seeking objects to suck, such as their thumbs • Parents are much quicker to regulate infant’s negative emotions than their positive ones, which they typically enjoy and try to promote • However, the emotions that are considered socially acceptable may be quite different in one culture than in another o American babies learn that intense displays of emotion are okay as long as they are positive o Gusii andAka babies learn to restrain both positive and negative emotions • After year 1, infants develop other strategies for reducing negative arousal such as rocking themselves, chewing on objects and moving away from people/events that upset them o By age 18-24 months, toddlers are now more likely to control the actions of people or objects that upset them  They are beginning to cope with frustrations of having to wait for snacks/gifts by distracting themselves o 18-month-old toddlers have a very difficult time regulating any fear they may experience  They develop styles of emotional expressions that are more likely to attraction attention and soothing from caregivers Emerging Cognitive Strategies for Regulating Emotions • By 18-24 months, toddlers begin to talk about emotions and these conversations about the causes and consequences of their own and others’emotions contribute greatly to their emotional understanding and to their emotional self-regulation • Preschoolers continue to learn about the importance of controlling intense negative emotions which interferes with the accomplishment of personal/social goals • Conversation about emotions with parents often help preschoolers develop cognitive strategies for emotional self-regulation o One common approach that parents take is to instruct children to distract themselves from stressors they cannot control by focusing their attention on something more pleasant • Adaptive regulation may sometimes involve maintaining or intensifying one’s emotions rather than suppressing it o Such as when standing up to a bully or learning what they did wrong o Such as pride in our accomplishments Learning and Abiding by Emotional Display Rules • Each society has a set of emotional display rules that specify the circumstances under which various emotions should or should not be expressed o These emotional ‘codes of conduct’are rules that children must acquire and use in order to get along with other people and to maintain their approval • Adisplay rule may require us: o To suppress whatever unacceptable emotions we are actually experiencing, and o Replace these unacceptable emotions with whatever emotion the displace rule calls for in that situation or basically ‘faking it’ • By about age 3, children are beginning to show some limited ability to hide their true feelings • Parents tend to place stronger pressures on girls to ‘act nice’in social situations, which makes them more motivated and skilled at complying with display rules than boys • Mothers who emphasize positive emotions and who de-emphasize negative feelings in their parent-child interactions tend to have children who are better able to mask disappointments and other negative emotions • Yet even under the best circumstances, simple display rules often take some time to master fully • Compliance with culturally specified rules for displaying emotions occurs earlier and is especially strong among collectivist people, such as the Japanese • But regardless of the specific display rules a culture prescribes, these guidelines for appropriate emotional expression help developing persons to ‘fit in’and thus work for the good of society o Children who have mastered this are viewed as more likable and more competent by their teachers and peers Emotional Competence, Social Competence, and Personal Adjustment • Achieving emotional competence is crucial to children’s social competence o Social competence: the ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while maintaining positive relationships with others • Emotional competence has 3 components: 1) Competent emotional expressivity  Involves frequent expression of more positive emotions and relatively infrequent displays of negative ones 2) Competent emotional knowledge  Involves the ability to correctly identify other people[s feelings and the events responsible for those emotions 3) Competent emotional regulation  The ability to adjust one’s experience and expression of emotional arousal to an appropriate level of intensity to successfully achieve one’s goals • At age 3-4 only emotional regulation predicts social competence o However, by kindergarten, both competent emotional expressivity and knowledge become strong predictors of social competence • All 3 aspects of emotional competence assessed early in life have implications of children’s emerging social competence and their likely patterns of social adjustment Temperament and Development What is Temperament and how is it Measured? • Temperament: a person’s characteristic modes of emotional and behavioural responding to environmental events • The following 6 dimensions provide a fairly good description of individual differences in infant temperament 1) Fearful distress  Wariness, distress, withdrawal in new situations or in response to novel stimuli 2) Irritable distress  Fussiness, crying and show distress when desires are frustrated  Sometimes called frustration/anger 3) Positive affect  Frequency in smiling, laughing, willingness to approach others and to cooperate with them  Sometimes called sociability 4) Activity level  Amount of gross motor activity 5) Attention span/persistence  Length of time child orients to and focuses on objects or events of interest 6) Rhythmicity  Regularity/predictability of bodily functions such as eating, sleeping and bowel functioning • Infant temperament reflects: o 2 kinds of negative emotionality: fearfulness and irritability o Global positive affect • The first 5 of these are also useful for describing temperamental variations that preschool or older children display • Variations on some temperamental dimensions take some time to appear and are influenced by biological maturation and experience Measurement of Temperament • The most common approach is to ask adults who know the child well to characterise their behaviour on questions designed to assess particular temperamental attributes o Such as the Infant Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ) and the Child Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ) for toddlers to early grade-school, both by Rothbart o The advantage of instruments such as the IBQ and the CBQ is that  The adults who complete them usually have extensive knowledge of the child’s behaviour and emotional reactivity in many different situations o The disadvantage is  When parents are involved, that their reports may be completely objective • Other investigators prefer to assess temperament by exposing children to laboratory situations in which temperamental variations of interest are likely to be observed o Advantage:  More objective and less biased assessment o Disadvantages  Measures may be heavily influenced by transient factors, such as the child’s mood on that day  Measures provide information about 1 or 2 temperamental attributes rather than reflecting broader temperamental differences Hereditary and Environmental Influences on Temperament Hereditary Influences • Biological foundation for temperament is genetically influenced and stable over time • Researchers have looked for hereditary influences by comparing the temperamental similarities of pairs of identical/fraternal twins o The research shows moderate heritability Environmental Influences • Which aspects of the environment are most important in development temperament? • Shared environmental influences o Influences positive tone temperamental attributes such as smiling/positive affect o Contribute little to negatively toned attributes such as irritability and fearful distress • Shared environmental influences o Includes aspects of the environment that siblings do not share and conspire to make them dissimilar o Negatively toned temperamental attributes are shaped here Stability of Temperament • How stable is early temperament over time? • Research indicates that several components of temperament are moderately stable through infancy, childhood and sometimes into early adult years o This includes activity level, irritability and positive affect/sociability o However, not all individuals are so temperamentally stable • Kagan and associates conducted studies of a temperamental attribute they call behaviour inhibition o Behaviour inhibition: a temperamental attribute reflecting the fearful distress children display and their tendency to withdraw from unfamiliar people and situations o Age: 4 months  Inhibited infants are already fussy and showing heightened motor activity to novel objects and intense physiological arousal o Age: 21 months  Inhibited toddlers are rather and sometimes even fearful when they encounter unfamiliar people, toys or settings o Age: 4-7½ years  Inhibited youngsters are less sociable with strange adults and peers and cautious o Inhibited infants/toddlers are a risk for development exaggerated fears as grade- school children and becoming shy and socially anxious as adolescents • Behavioural inhibition is a moderately stable attribute that may have deep biological roots o Other researchers found that it was mainly those children in the extremes, such as those who are highly inhibited or uninhibited who displayed long-term stability o Other children showed considerable fluctuations in their levels of inhibition over time o Variations in inhibition implies that this attribute is subject to environmental influence Early Temperamental Profiles and Later Development • Thomas and Chess noted that certain aspects of infant temperament tend to cluster in predictable ways, forming broader temperamental profiles: 1) Easy temperament  40% of infants in the study showed this type  Easygoing children are even-tempered  Typically in a positive mood  Open and adaptable to new experiences  Habits are regular and predictable 2) Difficult temperament  10% of infants in the study showed this type  Active and irritable  Have irregular habits  React very vigorously to changes in routine  Slow to adapt to new persons/situations  May react negatively 3) Slow-to-warm-up temperament  15% of infants in the study showed this type  Inactive and moody  Slow to adapt to new persons/situations  They respond to novelty with mild passive resistance Temperamental Profiles and Children’s Adjustment • These broader temperamental patterns may persist over time Child Rearing and Temperament • Chess and Thomas find that early temperamental characteristics sometimes do and sometimes don’t carry over into later life • Temperamental profiles can change, and one fact that often determines whether they do change is the “goodness of fit” between the child’s temperamental style and patterns of child rearing used by parents o “Goodness of fit”: development is likely to be optimized when parent’s child- rearing practices are sensitively adapted to the child’s temperamental characteristics • Many difficult infants who experience patient and sensitive caregiving are no longer classifiable as difficult o Yet it isn’t always easy for parents to be patient and sensitive with highly active, moody children who resist their bids for attention o Many parents become irritable, impatient, demanding and punitive with difficult children o These attitudes and behaviours constitute a ‘poor fit’with a difficult child, who is more likely to become more fussy and resistant Cross­Cultural Variations in the Developmental Implications of Temperament • The research we have reviewed linking temperament and developmental outcomes is limited in one very important respect: most of it was conducted in Western cultures o What qualifies as a ‘desirable’temperament and outcomes associated with it, may vary from culture to culture • For instance, shyness o In America Children who are shy and revered are at a social disadvantage and may run the risk of being neglected or rejected o While inAsian cultures, shyness is valued and is perceived as socially mature and more likely to be popular among peers  Culture changes to more individualistic customs has shown an opposite effect however o In Sweden shyness is viewed positively and do not constrain careers in the same way it does in America  ShyAmeric
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